In Iran, there has been no national report on salt intake based on laboratory measurements so far. Therefore, this study was conducted to measure salt intake among Iranian population at the national level.
In stepwise approach to conduct a surveillance survey 2016, 18 624 Iranian adults (25 years old and above), as a representative sample of Iranian adult population at national and subnational levels, underwent urine sodium measurement and were included in this study. The participants were recruited through a systematic random sampling from 30 provinces of Iran. For each individual, through a computer-assisted interview, a questionnaire on lifestyle risk factors was completed, all anthropometric indices were measured, and data on sodium of spot urine sample for all individuals and 24-h urine sample for a subsample were collected. To estimate the 24-h salt intake, common equations were used.
In total, 97.66% of the population consumed at least 5 g of salt per day. In addition, in 41.20% of the population, the level of salt intake was at least two times higher than the level recommended by the WHO for adults. The mean of salt intake among Iranian population was 9.52 g/day (95% confidence interval: 9.48–9.56).
The study showed that the consumption of salt among the Iranian population is higher than the level recommended by WHO. To reduce salt intake, it is necessary to adopt a combination of nationwide policies such as food reformulation and food labelling.
aNon-Communicable Diseases Research Center, Endocrinology and Metabolism Population Sciences Institute
bStudents’ Scientific Research Center
cDepartment of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences
dDepartment of Biostatistics, Faculty of Paramedical Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran
ePersian Gulf Marine Biotechnology Research Center, The Persian Gulf Biomedical Sciences Research Institute, Bushehr University of Medical Sciences, Bushehr
fSchool of Nutritional Sciences and Dietetics, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran
gDepartment of Public Health, School of Public Health, Neyshabur University of Medical Sciences, Neyshabur
hDepartment of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Iran University of Medical Sciences
iReference Health Laboratory, Ministry of Health and Medical Education, Tehran
jSocial Determinants of Health Research Center, Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, Sanandaj
kEndocrinology and Metabolism Research Center, Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinical Sciences Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
Correspondence to Farshad Farzadfar, MD, DSc, Non-Communicable Diseases Research Center, Endocrinology and Metabolism Population Sciences Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Second Floor, No. 10, Jalal Al-e-Ahmad Highway, Tehran 1411713137, Iran. Tel: +98 21 88631293; e-mail: f–firstname.lastname@example.org
Abbreviations: CVD, cardiovascular disease; DALY, disability-adjusted life-year; NCD, noncommunicable disease; NIMAD, National Institute for Medical Research Development; SDG, sustainable development goal; STEPs, stepwise approach to conduct a surveillance
Received 14 March, 2018
Revised 16 May, 2018
Accepted 23 May, 2018