Anatomy and neural remodeling of the renal sympathetic nerve in a canine model and patients with hypertensionXiong, Boa; Li, Jianbob; Yao, Yuanqinga; Qian, Juna; Rong, Shunkanga; Zhang, Pengb; Jiang, Rongc; Yang, Ganga; Zhu, Quea; Jiang, Yonghonga; Zhou, Qia; Liu, Dichuana; Deng, Changminga; Huang, JingaJournal of Hypertension: October 2018 - Volume 36 - Issue 10 - p 2059–2067 doi: 10.1097/HJH.0000000000001809 ORIGINAL PAPERS: Autonomic nervous system Buy SDC Abstract Author InformationAuthors Article MetricsMetrics Background: The role of renal sympathetic nerve (RSN) in hypertension should be better understood. We aimed to three-dimensionally reconstruct the renal nerves, and explore its anatomical and histochemical characteristics in hypertensive canine model and patients. Methods: Renal arteries with surrounding tissue were collected from canines and cadavers with or without hypertension. Serial renal artery hematoxylin–eosin sections were used for three-dimensional reconstruction, and morphological parameters were collected and analyzed. Results: In hypertensive canines, the mean renal nerve number was 26.71 ± 5.68 versus 19.84 ± 5.68 in controls (P = 0.02), and the middle renal nerve volume was 5.31 ± 2.13 versus 2.60 ± 1.00 μl in controls (P = 0.01). Renal tissue norepinephrine concentrations, tyrosine hydroxylase and substance P immunoreactivity in RSN, and growth-associated protein 43 immunoreactivity in renal ganglion were significantly increased in hypertensive canines. In humans, the renal nerve was evenly distributed along the renal artery in a network pattern. The renal ganglion volume was 72.75 ± 33.43 in hypertensive patients versus 37.04 ± 23.95 μl in controls (P = 0.029) and the mean neuronal size in renal ganglion was 1187.3 ± 219.9 μm2 in patients versus 714.8 ± 142.7 μm2 in controls (P = 0.002). Tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity in the RSN was 0.153 ± 0.014 in patients versus 0.104 ± 0.019 in controls (P = 0.013). Growth-associated protein 43 immunoreactivity in the renal ganglion was 86 612.8 ± 14 642.0 in patients versus 33 469.8 ± 15 666.8 μm2/mm2 in controls (P < 0.001). Conclusion: Our study suggests that RSN and renal ganglion histological remodeling occurs in individuals with hypertension and the distal segment or branches of renal artery might be a promising therapeutic target for RSN modulation therapy. aDepartment of Cardiology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University bDepartment of Forensic Medicine cLaboratory of Stem Cell and Tissue Engineering, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, Chongquing Medical University, Chongqing, China Correspondence to Jing Huang, MD, Department of Cardiology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, No. 76 Linjiang Road, Chongqing 400010, China. E-mails: firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com Received 22 January, 2018 Revised 20 April, 2018 Accepted 3 May, 2018 Supplemental digital content is available for this article. Direct URL citations appear in the printed text and are provided in the HTML and PDF versions of this article on the journal's Website (http://www.jhypertension.com). Copyright © 2018 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.