Hypertensive crisis (HC) in an important and common event in emergency unit, although the incidence is only 1%. HC comprises of hypertensive emergency (HE) and hypertensive urgency (HU) based on the presence or absence of target organ damage. Data on epidemiology and clinical profile of these patients admitted to the emergency unit are limited. This study aimed to describe the epidemiology and clinical profile of hypertensive crisis at emergency unit of Krakatau Medika Hospital in Cilegon
This cross sectional descriptive study was done from September 2017 until November 2017. Data collected were age, sex, history of hypertension, symptoms and signs, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, mean arterial pressure, and target organ damage in HE patients. Chi-square test or Fischer's exact test was used to compare categorical variables, Student's t-test or Mann Whitney test was used to compare quantitative variables.
Out of 2280 patients admitted to emergency unit in the study period, HC frequency was 69 patients (0.03%); 44.92% HE and 55.08% HU. The largest age group of HE and HU were 51–60 respectively. History of hypertension in HE compared to HU patient was 93.54% vs. 86.84%. The mean systolic blood pressure in HE compared to HU was mmHg 209.19 [24.05] mmHg vs. 197.29 [18.32]. The most prevalent target organ damage was brain and lung.
HE patients have the same age group as HU patients with higher frequency of history of hypertension and higher systolic blood pressure compared to HU. The brain and lung were the most prevalent target organ damage.
1General Practitioner of Krakatau Medika Hospital
2Department of Internal Medicine Krakatau Medika Hospital