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Noninvasive cardiovascular imaging for evaluating subclinical target organ damage in hypertensive patients: a consensus article from the European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging, the European Society of Cardiology Council on Hypertension and the European Society of Hypertension*

Perrone-Filardi, Pasqualea; Coca, Antoniob; Galderisi, Maurizioa; Paolillo, Stefaniac; Alpendurada, Franciscod; de Simone, Giovannie; Donal, Erwanf; Kahan, Thomasg; Mancia, Giuseppeh; Redon, Josepi; Schmieder, Rolandj; Williams, Bryank; Agabiti-Rosei, Enricol

doi: 10.1097/HJH.0000000000001396

Arterial hypertension accounts for the largest amount of attributable cardiovascular mortality worldwide, and risk stratification in hypertensive patients is of crucial importance to manage treatment and prevent adverse events. Asymptomatic involvement of different organs in patients affected by hypertension represents an independent determinant of cardiovascular risk, and the identification of target organ damage is recommended to further reclassify patients’ risk. Noninvasive cardiovascular imaging is progressively being used and continues to provide new technological opportunities to target organ damage evaluation at early stage. The aim of this article is to provide the community of cardiology with an update on appropriate and justified use of noninvasive imaging tests in the growing population of hypertensive patients.

aDepartment of Advanced Biomedical Sciences, Federico II University of Naples, Naples, Italy

bHypertension and Vascular Risk Unit, Department of Internal Medicine, Hospital Clínic (IDIBAPS), University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain

cSDN IRCCS, Naples, Italy

dNIHR Cardiovascular BRU, Royal Brompton & Harefield NHS Trust and Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom

eHypertension Research Center (CIRIAPA), Federico II University of Naples, Naples, Italy

fCardiology & Cic-it 1414, CHU Rennes LTSI, Insert 1099, Université Rennes-1, Rennes, France

gDivision of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Karolinska Institutet, Danderyd Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden

hIRCCS Istituto Auxologico Italiano e Istituto Clinico Universitario di Verano Brianza, Policlinico di Monza, Monza, Italy

iINCLIVA Research Institute, University of Valencia and CIBERObn Carlos III Institute, Madrid, Spain

jDepartment of Nephrology and Hypertension, University Hospital Erlangen, Erlangen, Germany

kUniversity College London and National Institute for Health Research University College London Hospitals Biomedical Research Centre, London, United Kingdom

lDepartment of Clinical and Experimental Sciences, Clinica Medica, Hypertension and Cardiovascular Risk Research Centre, University of Brescia, Spedali Civili, Brescia, Italy

Correspondence to Pasquale Perrone-Filardi, Section of Cardiology, Department of Advanced Biomedical Sciences, Federico II University of Naples, Via Pansini 5, 80131 Naples, Italy. Tel: +39 081 7462224; fax: +39 081 7462224; e-mail:

Abbreviations: AAA, abdominal aorta aneurysm; AS, arterial stiffness; BP, blood pressure; CFR, coronary flow reserve; CV, cardiovascular; EF, ejection fraction; GLS, global longitudinal strain; HTN, hypertension; IMT, intima–media thickness; IVS, interventricular septal thickness; LA, left atrial; LAVi, left atrial volume index; LGE, late gadolinium enhancement; LV, left ventricular; LVFP, left ventricular filling pressure; LVID, left ventricular internal diameter; PWT, posterior wall thickness; RWT, relative wall thickness; TOD, target organ damage

Received 26 March, 2017

Accepted 3 April, 2017

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