We compared the autonomic and hemodynamic cardiovascular effects of amlodipine and enalapril treatment associated with an aerobic physical training program on spontaneously hypertensive rats.
Eighteen-week-old (n = 48) spontaneously hypertensive rats were assigned to one of two groups: sedentary (n = 24) and trained (n = 24) through a 10-week swimming training program. Each group was subdivided into three groups (n = 8): control (vehicle group), amlodipine (amlodipine group; 10 mg/kg per day) and enalapril (enalapril group; 10 mg/kg per day) (both for 10 weeks). We cannulated the femoral artery and vein of all animals for recording arterial pressure and injecting drugs, respectively. Autonomic assessment was performed by double blockade with propranolol and atropine, analysis of heart rate variability (HRV), systolic arterial pressure variability and baroflex sensitivity.
Arterial pressure reduction was more prominent in the sedentary and trained enalapril groups. Amlodipine sedentary group presented important autonomic adjustments characterized by a predominance of vagal tone in cardiac autonomic balance, increased HRV associated with sympathetic autonomic modulation reduction and increased vagal autonomic modulation, and increased baroflex sensitivity. All findings were not potentialized by physical training. In turn, the enalapril trained group, but not its sedentary counterpart, also had vagal tone prevalence in cardiac autonomic balance, increased HRV, increased baroflex sensitivity and decreased low-frequency band in systolic arterial pressure variability.
Amlodipine was more effective in promoting beneficial autonomic cardiovascular adaptations in sedentary animals. In contrast, enalapril achieved better autonomic results only when combined with aerobic physical training.