A global health problem that until now has not been resolved is hypertension. Regular consumption of captopril is one of pharmacological therapy that frequently used by people with hypertension, but now has been known to cause variety of side effects. To avoid side effects, antihypertensive that effective and safe for consumption is required. Avocados as the fruit are mostly found in Indonesia contain rich in mono unsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) that could reduce vascular resistance, and rich in potassium and magnesium as a diuretic and natriuretic for the body. This substance was proven could lower blood pressure so that the avocado is very potential as antihypertensive. We aimed to prove that avocado extract is a benefit for health by lowering blood pressure of hypertensive rats induced by desoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt.
Design and Method:
An experimental study with randomized post-test only control group design was conducted on 24 male rats divided equally into four groups. Hypertensive rats induced by DOCA-salt 15 mg/kgW two times a week in five weeks. Group P1 as control; group P2, P3 and P4 was given captopril 1.25 mg/kgW, avocado extract 150 mg/kgW and 300 mg/kgW respectively for three weeks. The blood pressure was determined by tail cuff method using blood pressure analyzer. One-way Anova and post hoc LSD test were used to analyze the data. A P-value less than 0.05 considered significant.
The results showed that the mean systolic blood pressure in the treatment groups was lower than the control (P2:135.93 ± 1.00; P3:124.77 ± 1.12; P4:113.50 ± 5.99 vs P1:161.99 ± 4.05; p < 0.05). Based on the mean diastolic blood pressure, the treatment groups had lower blood pressure than the control (P2:84.25 ± 1.54; P3:79.85 ± 11.51; P4:70.83 ± 8.18 vs P1:94.36 ± 8.05; p < 0.05).
The antihypertensive effect of avocado extract increased consistently with increasing dose. This study proves that avocado extract could act as potential antihypertensive.