Cigarette smoke is one of the leading causes of preventable deaths in the world. World Health Organization (WHO) 2015 reported 6,000,000 people are estimated to die annually from cigarette smoke, with over 600,000 deaths due to exposure second-hand smoke. Cigarette smoke known to enhance Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS). ROS could damage vascular and alter platelet reactivity that makes decrease of bleeding time as an indicator of thrombosis risk factor effect. Vitamin C as an essential antioxidant was proven to reduce oxidative stress due to ROS. We aimed to prove that vitamin C could prevent decreases bleeding time of mice induced cigarette smoke.
Design and Method:
An experimental study with randomized pre test-post test control group design was conducted on 21 mice divided equally into three groups. Group I as control; group II was given cigarette smoke in 10 minutes per day, and group III was given vitamin C 0,4 mg/gW/day + cigarette smoke in 10 minutes per day, respectively, for two weeks. The bleeding time was determined by a tail bleeding method on day 0 and day 15. T-paired and LSD post-hoc test were used to analyze the data. A P-value less than 0.05 considered significant.
The result showed that group I had not a significant difference in mean of bleeding time from 60.16 ± 3.27 to 57.61 ± 4.88 seconds. Group II had a significant difference in mean of bleeding time from 59.34 ± 6.93 to 38.85 ± 3.43 seconds. Group III had a significant difference in mean of bleeding time from 59.36 ± 3.07 to 51.85 ± 3.45 seconds. Group II and group III had a significant difference in post-test mean of bleeding time (p = 0.000).
This research proves that vitamin C could prevent decreases of bleeding time. Further study is needed find out the effective dose and its potency in human.