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Management of the hypertensive patient with elevated heart rate: Statement of the Second Consensus Conference endorsed by the European Society of Hypertension

Palatini, Paolo; Rosei, Enrico Agabiti; Casiglia, Edoardo; Chalmers, John; Ferrari, Roberto; Grassi, Guido; Inoue, Teruo; Jelakovic, Bojan; Jensen, Magnus T.; Julius, Stevo; Kjeldsen, Sverre E.; Mancia, Giuseppe; Parati, Gianfranco; Pauletto, Paolo; Stella, Andrea; Zanchetti, Alberto


In the author list of this paper [1] , Dr Inoue's first name was published, incorrectly. Correct full name should read, ‘Taku Inoue’.

Additionally, the author's affiliation should be: Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Nambu Hospital, Okinawa, Japan.

Journal of Hypertension. 34(7):1448, July 2016.

doi: 10.1097/HJH.0000000000000865

In June 2015, a panel of experts gathered in a consensus conference to plan updating recommendations on the management of the hypertensive patient with elevated heart rate (HR), previously released in 2006. The issues examined during that meeting and further discussed by the participants during the following months involved the assessment of HR, the relevance of HR as a cardiovascular risk factor, the definition of tachycardia and the treatment of the hypertensive patient with high HR. For the measurement of resting HR the panel experts recommended that scientific investigations focusing on HR should report information on length of resting period before measurement, information about temperature and environment, method of measurement, duration of measurement, number of readings, time interval between measurements, body position and type of observer. According to the panellists there is convincing evidence that HR is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease and they suggest to routinely include HR measurement in the assessment of the hypertensive patient. Regarding the definition of tachycardia, the panellists acknowledged that in the absence of convincing data any threshold used to define tachycardia is arbitrary. Similarly, as there are no outcome studies of HR lowering in tachycardia hypertension, the panellists could not make practical therapeutic suggestions for the management of such patients. However, the experts remarked that absence of evidence does not mean evidence against the importance of tachycardia as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease and that long-term exposure to a potentially important risk factor may impair the patient's prognosis. The main aims of the present document are to alert researchers and physicians about the importance of measuring HR in hypertensive patients, and to stimulate research to clarify unresolved issues.

aDepartment of Medicine, University of Padova, Padua

bDepartment of Clinical and Experimental Sciences, University of Brescia, Brescia, Italy

cThe George Institute for Global Health, University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia

dDepartment of Cardiology and LTTA Centre, University Hospital of Ferrara and Maria Cecilia Hospital, GVM, Ferrara

eClinica Medica, Dipartimento di Scienze della Salute, Universita‘Milano-Bicocca and IRCCS Multimedica, Sesto San Giovanni, Milan, Italy

fDepartment of Cardiovascular Medicine, Dokkyo Medical University, Okinawa, Japan

gUniversity Hospital Center Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia

hDepartment of Cardiology, Copenhagen University Hospital Gentofte, Hellerup, Denmark

iDivision of Hypertension, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA

jDepartment of Cardiology, Ullevaal University Hospital, Oslo, Norway

kUniversity of Milano-Bicocca and IRCCS Istituto Auxologico Italiano, Milan

lDepartment of Medicine, University of Padova, Italy and Medicina Interna Î, Ca’ Foncello Hospital, Treviso

oClinica Nefrologica, Ospedale San Gerardo, Monza

pCentro Interuniversitario di Fisiologia Clinica e Ipertensione, University of Milan, and Istituto Auxologico Italiano, Milan, Italy.

Correspondence to Paolo Palatini, MD, Vascular Medicine, DIMED, University of Padova, via Giustiniani, 2, 35128 Padua, Italy. Tel: +39 049 8212278; fax: +39 049 8754179; e-mail:

Received 12 October, 2015

Revised 18 December, 2015

Accepted 23 December, 2015

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