The objective of this study is to examine the relationship of serum carboxymethyl-lysine (CML), an advanced glycation end product (AGE), with pulse pressure (PP), aortic pulse wave velocity (aPWV) and hypertension in older adults.
AGEs are bioactive molecules that accumulate in tissues with ageing and can both cross-link collagen and induce inflammation in model systems. The relationship of AGEs with arterial stiffness and hypertension has not been well characterized in community-dwelling older adults.
We measured serum CML and blood pressure in 3044 adults, aged 70–79 years, who participated in the Health, Aging and Body Composition Study, a population-based study of ageing in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania and Memphis, Tennessee. aPWV was measured in 2468 participants.
Participants in the highest tertile of serum CML had higher PP (highest tertile: beta = 2.85, SE = 0.82, P = 0.0005; middle tertile: beta = 0.60, SE = 0.80, P = 0.45), and higher aPWV (highest tertile: beta = 51.4, SE = 20.1, P = 0.01; middle tertile: beta = 3.2, SE = 19.8, P = 0.87) than those in the lowest tertile in multivariable linear regression models adjusting for age, sex, race, education, BMI, smoking, alcohol use, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, diabetes, cardiovascular disease and chronic kidney disease. Participants in the highest and middle tertiles of serum CML had higher odds of hypertension [odds ratio (OR) 1.32, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.06–1.60, P = 0.005; OR 1.27, 95% CI 1.05–1.53, P = 0.01, respectively] than those in the lowest tertile in a multivariable logistic regression model adjusting for the same covariates.
Elevated serum CML was associated with arterial stiffness, as reflected by higher PP and aPWV, in older, community-dwelling adults.