The present study examined the association between uric acid levels and high blood pressure in a multiethnic study of Chinese children and adolescents.
The participants were divided into four different groups according to the uric acid quartiles. Three logistic regression models were conducted to investigate the relationship between the high blood pressure and uric acid levels. Model 1 adjusted age, sex and ethnicity. Model 2 adjusted age, sex, ethnicity, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein, triglycerides, estimated glomerular filtration rate, fasting glucose and waist circumference. Model 3 adjusted all the confounding factors in model 2 except the waist circumference and BMI. The concentrations of uric acid in high blood pressure participants and normotensive participants were compared with or without adjustment for confounding factors.
A total of 3778 participants aged 10–15 years from the Xinjiang Congenital Heart Disease Survey were included in the present study. The percentages of the high blood pressure in the four different uric acid quartiles were 7.4, 8.6, 9.6 and 11.8%, respectively. In model 1, 2 and 3 of the logistic regression, the participants in the third and fourth uric acid quartiles had significantly higher chance of suffering the high blood pressure when compared with the participants in the first uric acid quartile [odds ratio 1.608, 1.587, 1.597, P = 0.005, 0.015, 0.015, respectively, between participants in the first quartile and the third quartile; odds ratio 1.981, 1.945, 1.810, P = 0.001, 0.002, 0.007, respectively, between participants in the first quartile and the fourth quartile). The concentrations of serum uric acid were 220.7 μmol/l in high blood pressure participants and 204.1 μmol/l in normotensive participants (P = 0.024). After adjustment for confounding factors, the concentrations of serum uric acid were 219.7 vs. 204.5 μmol/l in one model (P < 0.001) and 219.3 vs. 204.5 μmol/l in the other model (P < 0.001).
Among Chinese children and adolescents, increasing levels of serum uric acid are associated with high blood pressure.
aDepartment of Cardiology, First Affiliated Hospital of Xinjiang Medical University
bXinjiang Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Disease Research, Urumqi, People's Republic of China
cDivision of Laboratory Medicine, Department of Pathology and Microbiology, Nihon University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan
*Shuo Pan and Chun-Hui He contribute equally to the writing of the article.
Correspondence to Yi-Tong Ma, MD, PhD, Department of Cardiology, First Affiliated Hospital of Xinjiang Medical University, Urumqi 830054, People's Republic of China. Tel: +86 991 4366169; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abbreviations: eGFR, estimated glomerular filtration rate; HDL, high-density lipoprotein; LDL, low-density lipoprotein; TC, total cholesterol; XCHDS, Xinjiang Congenital Heart Disease Survey
Received 23 May, 2013
Revised 14 January, 2014
Accepted 11 January, 2014