Secondary Logo

Journal Logo

Institutional members access full text with Ovid®

Pediatric reference values of carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity determined with an oscillometric device

Fischer, Dagmar-Christiane; Schreiver, Corinna; Heimhalt, Mirjam; Noerenberg, Anja; Haffner, Dieter

doi: 10.1097/HJH.0b013e3283582217
ORIGINAL PAPERS: Blood vessels

Background: A semi-automated devise for oscillometric measurement (Vicorder) of carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV) has been considered to be especially suited for multicenter studies in children and adolescents.

Methods: Within a healthy pediatric population (156 boys/158 girls; mean age 10.8 years, range 5.0–19.6 years), the transit time of the pulse wave was measured oscillometrically (Vicorder) between a carotid and femoral cuff. For calculation of cfPWV, the traveled path length was set to 80% of the direct distance between both sites of measurement. Reference tables were generated using the maximum-likelihood curve-fitting technique and SD scores were calculated. Normalizing the same set of data with reference values specific for applanation tonometry yielded Zat values. Effects of sex, age, height, weight, BMI, blood pressure (BP), and heart rate on cfPWV as well as the correlation between sex-specific age-related and height-related Zosci and Zat were investigated.

Results: Sex-specific reference values and curves for cfPWV as a function of age and height are presented. cfPWV correlated positively with age, height, weight, SBP, mean arterial BP, and sex (each P < 0.005). Multiple regression analysis identified age, sex, and mean arterial pressure as significant independent predictors of cfPWV explaining 42% of the overall variability. Strong linear relationships between Zosci and Zat were noted and per sex a set of age and height-related equation for conversion was derived: Zat,age = −0.22 + 0.68 × Zosci,age; r = 0.98 and Zat,height = −0.33 + 0.66 × Zosci,height; r = 0.99 in boys and Zat,age = −0.61 + 0.81 × Zosci,age; r = 0.98 and Zat,height = −0.73 + 0.72 × Zosci,height; r = 0.97 in girls (each P < 0.001).

Conclusion: A strong linear association between height-related oscillometric and tonometric Z-scores was observed. Age-related Z-scores are of limited value when comparing results across different populations and methods.

Supplemental Digital Content is available in the text

aDepartment of Pediatrics, University Hospital Rostock, Rostock

bDepartment of Pediatric Kidney, Liver and Metabolic Diseases, Hannover Medical School, Hannover, Germany

*Dagmar-Christiane Fischer and Corinna Schreiver contributed equally to the writing of this article and should both be considered as first authors.

Correspondence to Dagmar-Christiane Fischer, PhD, Department of Pediatrics, University Hospital Rostock, Ernst-Heydemann-Str. 8, D-18057 Rostock, Germany. Tel: +49 381 494 7041; fax: +49 381 494 7044; e-mail:

Abbreviations: BP, blood pressure; cfPWV, carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity; MAP, mean arterial pressure; SDS, standard deviation score

Received 24 January, 2012

Revised 26 June, 2012

Accepted 13 July, 2012

Supplemental digital content is available for this article. Direct URL citations appear in the printed text and are provided in the HTML and PDF versions of this article on the journal's Website (

Copyright © 2012 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.