GUIDELINEPosition paper on the management of patients with obstructive sleep apnea and hypertension: Joint recommendations by the European Society of Hypertension, by the European Respiratory Society and by the members of European COST (COoperation in Scientific and Technological research) ACTION B26 on Obstructive Sleep ApneaParati, Gianfrancoa,b; Lombardi, Carolinab; Hedner, Janc; Bonsignore, Maria R.d; Grote, Ludgerc; Tkacova, Ruzenae; Levy, Patrickf; Riha, Renatag; Bassetti, Claudioh; Narkiewicz, Krzysztofi; Mancia, Giuseppea; McNicholas, Walter T.jon behalf of the EU COST ACTION B26 membersAuthor Information aDepartment of Clinical Medicine and Prevention, University of Milano-Bicocca bDepartment of Cardiology, S. Luca Hospital, Istituto Auxologico Italiano IRCCS, Milan, Italy cSleep Disorders Centre, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden dDepartment of Medicine, Pneumology, Physiology and Nutrition (DIMPEFINU), University of Palermo, Palermo, Italy eDepartment of Respiratory Medicine and Tuberculosis, Faculty of Medicine, L. Pasteur Teaching Hospital, P.J. Safarik University, Kosice, Slovakia fGrenoble University Hospital, CHU Michallon, Grenoble, France gRoyal Infirmary of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK hDepartment of Neurology, University Hospital (Inselspital), Bern, Switzerland iDepartment of Hypertension and Diabetology, Medical University of Gdansk, Gdansk, Poland jRespiratory Sleep Disorders Unit, St Vincent's University Hospital, Conway Research Institute, University College, Dublin, Ireland Correspondence to Professor Gianfranco Parati, MD, FESC, S. Luca Hospital, Istituto Auxologico Italiano, Piazzale Brescia 20, Milan 20159, Italy. Tel: +39 02 619 112 949; fax: +39 02 619 112 956; e-mail: [email protected] Abbreviations: ABPM, ambulatory blood pressure monitoring; AHI, apnea hypopnea index; AV, atrioventricular; BP, blood pressure; CHF, congestive heart failure; CPAP, continuous positive airway pressure; CSA, central sleep apnea; CVD, cardiovascular diseases; DBP, diastolic blood pressure; IL-8, interleukine-8; NF-κB, nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells; OSA, obstructive sleep apnea; OSAS, obstructive sleep apnea syndrome; RAAS, renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system; SBP, systolic blood pressure; SRBD, sleep-related breathing disorders; SVES, supraventricular extrasystoles; TNF-α, tumor necrosis factor-α Received 27 December, 2011 Accepted 30 December, 2011 Supplemental digital content is available for this article. Direct URL citations appear in the printed text and are provided in the HTML and PDF versions of this article on the journal's Website (http://www.jhypertension.com). Journal of Hypertension: April 2012 - Volume 30 - Issue 4 - p 633-646 doi: 10.1097/HJH.0b013e328350e53b Buy SDC Metrics AbstractIn Brief This article is aimed at addressing the current state of the art in epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnostic procedures and treatment options for appropriate management of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in cardiovascular (particularly hypertensive) patients, as well as for the management of cardiovascular diseases (particularly arterial hypertension) in OSA patients. The present document is the result of the work done by a panel of experts participating in the European Union COST (COoperation in Scientific and Technological research) ACTION B26 on OSA, with the endorsement of the European Respiratory Society (ERS) and the European Society of Hypertension (ESH). These recommendations are particularly aimed at reminding cardiovascular experts to consider the occurrence of sleep-related breathing disorders in patients with high blood pressure. They are at the same time aimed at reminding respiration experts to consider the occurrence of hypertension in patients with respiratory problems at night. Supplemental Digital Content is available in the text © 2012 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.