ReviewsBlood 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration and hypertension: a meta-analysisBurgaz, Ann; Orsini, Nicola; Larsson, Susanna C; Wolk, AlicjaAuthor Information Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institiute, Stockholm, Sweden Received 7 September, 2010 Revised 24 November, 2010 Accepted 25 November, 2010 Correspondence to Ann Burgaz, Division of Nutritional Epidemiology, The National Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska, Institutet, PO Box 210, SE-171 77 Stockholm, Sweden Tel: +46 8 524 86170; fax: +46 8 304571; e-mail: [email protected] Journal of Hypertension: April 2011 - Volume 29 - Issue 4 - p 636-645 doi: 10.1097/HJH.0b013e32834320f9 Buy Metrics Abstract Objectives Increasing evidence indicates that vitamin D may influence the risk of hypertension, which is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. We conducted a meta-analysis to quantitatively review and summarize the results on the association between blood 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations and hypertension. Methods Relevant studies were identified by a search of PubMed and EMBASE databases until November 2010. We also reviewed the references of retrieved articles. We included prospective and cross-sectional studies with blood 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations as the exposure and hypertension as the outcome. Studies had to report results as a relative risk or an odds ratio. We used random-effects model. Results Of the 18 studies included in the meta-analysis, 4 were prospective studies and 14 were cross-sectional studies. The pooled odds ratio of hypertension was 0.73 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.63–0.84] for the highest versus the lowest category of blood 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration. In a dose–response meta-analysis, the odds ratio for a 40 nmol/l (16 ng/ml) (approximately 2 SDs) increment in blood 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration was 0.84 (95% CI 0.78–0.90). Conclusion Findings from this meta-analysis indicate that blood 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration is inversely associated with hypertension. © 2011 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.