Background and objective Chronic kidney disease
(CKD) associates with increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Hypertension is a major determinant of progression of CKD. Omega-3 fatty acids
(ω3FA) protect against CVD via improvements in blood pressure
, heart rate
, vascular reactivity and serum lipids. Coenzyme Q10
(CoQ) may improve blood pressure
and vascular function. This study determined whether ω3FA and CoQ have independent or additive effects in improving the cardiovascular profile, particularly blood pressure
and heart rate
, in nondiabetic patients with CKD stages 3–4.
In a double-blind, placebo-controlled intervention, patients were randomized to either ω3FA (4 g), CoQ (200 mg), both supplements or control (4 g), daily for 8 weeks.
Eighty-five patients aged 56.5 ± 1.4 years; BMI 27.3 ± 0.5 kg/m2
; supine blood pressure
125.0/72.3 mmHg; and glomerular filtration rate 35.8 ± 1.2 ml/min/1.73 m2
, were randomized. Seventy-four completed the study. ω3FA, but not CoQ, reduced 24-h ambulatory heart rate
< 0.0001) and blood pressure
< 0.0001). Main effects for ω3FA on 24-h measurements were −3.3 ± 0.7/−2.9 ± 0.5 mmHg and −4.0 ± 0.5 bpm. Postintervention blood pressure
showed significant interactions between treatments. ω3FA reduced triglycerides 24% (P
< 0.001). There were no changes in glomerular filtration rate, urinary albumin or total protein excretion, cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol (C), LDL-C, glucose, insulin, or high-sensitivity C-reactive protein.
This study has shown that ω3FA reduce blood pressure
, heart rate
and triglycerides in patients with CKD. CoQ had no independent effect on blood pressure
but increased heart rate
. These results show that ω3FA lower blood pressure
and may reduce cardiovascular risk in nondiabetic patients with moderate-to-severe CKD.