Original papers: EpidemiologyWorld Health Organization (WHO) and International Society of Hypertension (ISH) risk prediction charts: assessment of cardiovascular risk for prevention and control of cardiovascular disease in low and middle-income countriesMendis, Shanthia; Lindholm, Lars Hb; Mancia, Giuseppec; Whitworth, Judithd; Alderman, Michaele; Lim, Stephenf; Heagerty, Tonyg Author Information aWorld Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland bDepartment of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden cUniversità Milano-Bicocca, Ospedale San Gerardo, Milan, Italy dThe John Curtin School of Medical Research, The Australian National University, Australia eAlbert Einstein College of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology & Population, Bronx, New York, USA fSchool of Population Health, University of Queensland, Mayne Medical School, Queensland, Australia gUniversity of Manchester, Cardiovascular Research Group, Manchester, UK Received 15 May, 2007 Accepted 22 May, 2007 Correspondence to S. Mendis Senior Adviser Cardiovascular Diseases, Bureau 4034, World Health Organization, Geneva 1211, Switzerland E-mail: [email protected] Journal of Hypertension: August 2007 - Volume 25 - Issue 8 - p 1578-1582 doi: 10.1097/HJH.0b013e3282861fd3 Buy Metrics Abstract Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of the growing global disease burden due to non-communicable diseases. For successful prevention and control of CVD, strategies that focus on individuals need to complement population-wide strategies. Strategies that focus on individuals are cost effective only when targeted at high-risk groups. Risk prediction tools that easily and accurately predict an individual's absolute risk of CVD are key to targeting limited resources at high-risk individuals who are likely to benefit the most. Health systems in low-income countries do not have the basic infrastructure facilities to support resource-intensive risk prediction tools, particularly in primary healthcare. The WHO/ISH charts presented here, enable the prediction of future risk of heart attacks and strokes in people living in low and middle income countries, for the first time. Furthermore, since the charts use simple variables they can be applied even in low resource settings. Thus the WHO/ISH risk predication charts and the accompanying guideline will improve the effectiveness of cardiovascular risk management even in settings which do not have sophisticated technology. © 2007 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.