To determine whether kidney stone disease (KSD) and hypertension (HTN) share a common familial component that is determined by a specific urinary biochemical abnormality.
Familial aggregation study.
Two hundred and twelve KSD patients, aged 18–50 years, collected a 24-h urine sample to measure the urinary excretion of uric acid, calcium, oxalate, magnesium and citrate, and were interviewed about the occurrence of HTN among first-degree relatives.
Positive family history (FHx) of HTN defined as two or more relatives with HTN, and HTN occurring in the fathers, mothers and siblings.
Positive FHx of HTN was significantly associated with increasing urinary excretion of uric acid (P = 0.03) but not with the excretion of the other substances. When the patients were divided into those with and without hyperuricosuria, the adjusted odds ratio (OR) for positive FHx of HTN in a hyperuricosuric KSD patient was 3.8 (95% CI, 1.22–11.66). Separate analysis on the occurrence of HTN in the fathers, mothers and siblings of the probands indicated that hyperuricosuria is positively related to HTN occurring in the siblings of the patients (P <0.001) but not in the fathers or in the mothers. The adjusted OR for HTN occurring in siblings of hyperuricosuric patients compared with siblings of non-hyperuricosuric patients was 3.8 (2.12–6.67).
Siblings of KSD patients with hyperuricosuria had a significantly increased prevalence of HTN that could not be accounted for by age, family size, body-mass index and personal history of HTN of the probands. Additional studies need to be undertaken to determine whether this familial clustering has a genetic or environmental origin.