This study aimed to develop a scale focusing on knowledge and attitudes toward palliative care and end-of-life care for nurses and to confirm the scale's validity and reliability. We conducted a self-administered questionnaire survey with 1745 nurses of 10 hospitals all over Japan. We also examined the test-retest reliability of items for 205 of the nurses, 2 weeks after the first survey was completed. We used item-response theory, factor analysis, and intraclass correlation coefficients. The response rate was 44.5% (n = 762). Ninety items in 9 domains about knowledge of palliative care and end-of-life care were selected by using item-response theory. For knowledge items, Kuder-Richardson-20 was 0.85, and intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.84 in all domains. Ten items in 3 domains about attitudes toward palliative care and end-of-life care were selected by using exploratory factor analysis. For attitude items, Cronbach's α coefficient was .90, and intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.80 in all domains. The developed scale, named the End-of-Life Nursing Education Consortium—Japan Core Quiz, has sufficient validity and reliability. This scale may contribute to assessing the effectiveness of the End-of-Life Nursing Education Consortium—Japan Core Curriculum Nursing Education Program in Japan.
Tomoko Arahata, PhD, RN, assistant professor, Faculty of Nursing and Medical Care, Keio University, Japan.
Mitsunori Miyashita, PhD, RN, professor, Department of Palliative Nursing, Health Sciences, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Japan.
Sayaka Takenouchi, PhD, MPH, RN, program-specific senior lecturer, Department of Ethics Support, Kyoto University Hospital, Japan
Keiko Tamura, PhD, RN, OCNS, professor, Department of Palliatives/Gerontology Nursing, School of Human Health Science, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Japan
Yoshiyuki Kizawa, MD, PhD, designated professor, Department of Palliative Medicine, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Japan
Address correspondence to Tomoko Arahata, PhD, RN, Faculty of Nursing and Medical Care, Keio University, 35 Shinanomachi, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 160-8582, Japan (email@example.com).
This study was made possible through the support of the 2011 Health and Labor Sciences Research Grant for Cancer Clinical Research (Cancer Clinical Research Project).
The authors have no conflicts of interest to disclose.