Bone pain continues to be a commonly experienced and devastating consequence of metastatic spread of breast cancer; thus, it is imperative that therapies aimed at the palliation of pain should be understood and fully supported by nurses caring for these patients. Both hospice and palliative care nurses have expertise and a vested interest in alleviating pain. The aims of this review article are to outline well-established pain management strategies used to control metastatic bone pain and to incorporate newer multidisciplinary methods and modalities, including nonselective and cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor, selective nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, corticosteroids, opioids, biphosphonates, local radiation therapy, systemic radiopharmaceuticals, and surgery.
Rachael L. Rosenfield, MSN, APN-BC, AOCNP, is an Oncology Nurse Practitioner at Southwest Hematology Oncology, Phoenix, AZ.
Denise Stahl, MSN, BC-PCM, is a Palliative Care Specialist at Magee Women's Hospital, Pittsburgh, PA.
Address correspondence to Rachael Rosenfield, MSN, APN-BC, AOCNP, 11209 N. Tatum Blvd. Suite 260, Phoenix, AZ 85028 (e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org).
The authors have no conflict of interest