To establish and validate an artificial intelligence (AI)-assisted automatic cataract grading program based on the Lens Opacities Classification System III (LOCS III).
Eye and Ear, Nose, and Throat Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.
Advanced deep-learning algorithms, including Faster R-CNN and ResNet, were applied to the localization and analysis of the region of interest. An internal dataset from the EENT Hospital of Fudan University and an external dataset from the Pujiang Eye Study were used for AI training, validation, and testing. The datasets were automatically labeled on the AI platform regarding the capture mode and cataract grading based on the LOCS III.
The AI program showed reliable capture mode recognition, grading, and referral capability for nuclear and cortical cataract grading. In the internal and external datasets, 99.4% and 100% of automatic nuclear grading, respectively, had an absolute prediction error of ≤1.0, with a satisfactory referral capability (area under the curve [AUC]: 0.983 for the internal dataset; 0.977 for the external dataset); 75.0% (internal dataset) and 93.5% (external dataset) of the automatic cortical grades had an absolute prediction error of ≤1.0, with AUCs of 0.855 and 0.795 for referral, respectively. Good consistency was observed between automatic and manual grading when both nuclear and cortical cataracts were evaluated. However, automatic grading of posterior subcapsular cataracts was impractical.
The AI program proposed in this study showed robust grading and diagnostic performance for both nuclear and cortical cataracts, based on LOCS III.