Semiautomated optical coherence tomography-guided robotic surgery for porcine lens removal : Journal of Cataract & Refractive Surgery

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Laboratory science

Semiautomated optical coherence tomography-guided robotic surgery for porcine lens removal

Chen, Cheng-Wei PhD1; Francone, Anibal Andrés MD2; Gerber, Matthew J. MS3,*; Lee, Yu-Hsiu MS3; Govetto, Andrea MD4; Tsao, Tsu-Chin PhD3; Hubschman, Jean-Pierre MD2

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Journal of Cataract & Refractive Surgery 45(11):p 1665-1669, November 2019. | DOI: 10.1016/j.jcrs.2019.06.020



To evaluate semiautomated surgical lens extraction procedures using the optical coherence tomography (OCT)–integrated Intraocular Robotic Interventional Surgical System.


Stein Eye Institute and Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, USA.


Experimental study.


Semiautomated lens extraction was performed on postmortem pig eyes using a robotic platform integrated with an OCT imaging system. Lens extraction was performed using a series of automated steps including robot-to-eye alignment, irrigation/aspiration (I/A) handpiece insertion, anatomic modeling, surgical path planning, and I/A handpiece navigation. Intraoperative surgical supervision and human intervention were enabled by real-time OCT image feedback to the surgeon via a graphical user interface. Manual preparation of the pig-eye models, including the corneal incision and capsulorhexis, was performed by a trained cataract surgeon before the semiautomated lens extraction procedures. A scoring system was used to assess surgical complications in a postoperative evaluation.


Complete lens extraction was achieved in 25 of 30 eyes. In the remaining 5 eyes, small lens pieces (≤1.0 mm3) were detected near the lens equator, where transpupillary OCT could not image. No posterior capsule rupture or corneal leakage occurred. The mean surgical duration was 277 seconds ± 42 (SD). Based on a 3-point scale (0 = no damage), damage to the iris was 0.33 ± 0.20, damage to the cornea was 1.47 ± 0.20 (due to tissue dehydration), and stress at the incision was 0.97 ± 0.11.


No posterior capsule rupture was reported. Complete lens removal was achieved in 25 trials without significant surgical complications. Refinements to the procedures are required before fully automated lens extraction can be realized.

© 2019 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.

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