To examine the long-term efficacy and safety of myopic implantable collamer lens (ICL) implantation in active duty personnel of U.S. military.
Retrospective longitudinal observational study.
1485 patients (median age 25, interquartile range 22 to 29) underwent ICL surgery. Patients received a preoperative examination including uncorrected distance visual acuity (UDVA), intraocular pressure (IOP), manifest refraction measuring corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA), corneal topography and tomography, qualitative grading of perceived ectatic risk, ophthalmic biometry, and baseline endothelial cell counts (ECCs). Outcome measures included UDVA, IOP, vault size, manifest refraction, CDVA, and ECCs. The long-term follow-up data ware drawn from the U.S. military medical record system.
A total of 3105 eyes were evaluated. Patients received ICLs because of either abnormal topography (2111 eyes [68%]) or high myopia (994 eyes [32%]). 94 eyes (80%) maintained UDVA of 20/25 or better up to 8 years postoperatively. The rate of achieving the desired refractive correction was 97% (503 eyes) at 1 year and 90% (81 eyes) at 8 years. Stability of these outcomes was also shown by minimal change in manifest refraction. Documented mean ECC loss was 22% at postoperative year 5. The overall rate of adverse events was 1.2% (36 eyes) including visually significant cataract formation, glaucoma, retinal detachment, and traumatic incision opening. A removal or replacement rate of 4.5% (135 eyes) was observed.
ICL implantation was found to be effective and safe. Vault sizes decreased over time, suggesting an increased risk of cataract formation after 7 years. Further study is necessary to assess long-term clinical significance of ECC decline.