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Barnard R. James PhD; Ugianskis, Erika J. MS; Martin, Deborah A. MS
Journal of Cardiopulmonary Rehabilitation: May-June 1992
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This study examined the effects of a high-complex-carbohydrate, high-fiber, low-fat, and low-sodium diet combined with daily exercise on 70 patients (43 men and 27 women) with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) and hypertension. After the 26-day residential program, fasting serum glucose levels decreased significantly from 11.0 ± 0.5 to 8.4 ± 0.3 mmol/L. Twenty of 28 patients taking oral hypoglycemic agents discontinued their medication, and 12 of 27 patients taking insulin discontinued their medication. Resting blood pressure decreased significantly from 141 ± 2/81 ± 2 to 127 ± 2/75 ± 1 mm Hg. Blood pressure measured at the same work load was significantly reduced from 183 ± 3/84 ± 2 to 161 ± 3/76 ± 1 mm Hg. Thirty-seven of 61 patients were able to discontinue their antihypertensive medication. Body weight decreased an average of 4.7 ± 2.2 kg. Serum total cholesterol level was significantly reduced from 6.3 ± 0.2 to 4.9 ± 0.1 mmol/L, and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels were reduced from 4.2 ± 0.2 to 3.2 ± 0.1 mmol/L. High-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels were significantly reduced from 0.9 ± 0.03 to 0.85 ± 0.03 mmol/L, and the ratio of total cholesterol to HDL cholesterol was reduced from 6.75 to 5.70. Functional maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max) increased from 5.4 ± 0.5 to 7.6 ± 0.6 METS. These results indicated that diet combined with exercise can be an effective nonpharmacologic approach to treating patients with NIDDM and hypertension.

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