Secondary Logo

Journal Logo

Institutional members access full text with Ovid®

1-Minute Sit-to-Stand Test


Bohannon, Richard W., PT, DPT, EdD; Crouch, Rebecca, PT, DPT

Journal of Cardiopulmonary Rehabilitation and Prevention: January 2019 - Volume 39 - Issue 1 - p 2–8
doi: 10.1097/HCR.0000000000000336
Scientific Review

Purpose: Tests for quantifying exercise capacity that are applicable in diverse settings are needed. The 1-min sit-to-stand test (1-MSTST) is such a test. This systematic review summarizes the literature addressing 1-MSTST procedures, performance, and clinimetric properties.

Methods: Three online databases, hand searches, and an expert consultant were used to identify literature relevant to the aims of this review. Inclusion required that studies addressed the 1-MSTST, focused on adults, and were written in English.

Results: Seventeen articles were identified that met the inclusion criteria. The populations assessed included adults without identified pathologies and adults with lung disease, renal disease, stroke, osteoporosis, or receiving palliative care. The 1-MSTST typically involves an armless chair and the performance of as many sit-to-stand actions as possible in 1 min without using the upper limbs. The mean number of 1-MSTST repetitions reported in the literature achieved ranged from 8.1 (patients with stroke) to 50.0 (young men). Numerous studies supported the convergent and known-groups validity and the test-retest reliability of the test. The test has been shown to be responsive. Normative reference values are available.

Conclusions: The literature provides considerable support for using the 1-MSTST to quantify exercise capacity. Broader use of this test may be indicated, particularly where space and time are limited.

This systematic review focused on use of the 1-min sit-to-stand test for quantifying exercise capacity. The 16 relevant articles described application of the test in diverse groups of adults. Evidence was summarized regarding the validity, reliability, and responsiveness of the test. Normative values are available.

Department of Physical Therapy, College of Pharmacy & Health Sciences, Campbell University, Lillington, North Carolina.

Correspondence: Rebecca Crouch, PT, DPT, Doctoral Program of Physical Therapy, Department of Physical Therapy, College of Pharmacy & Health Sciences, Campbell University, Tracey F. Smith Hall, 4150 US 421 South, Lillington, NC 27546 (

Supplemental digital content is available for this article. Direct URL citation appears in the printed text and is provided in the HTML and PDF versions of this article on the journal's Web site (

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Copyright © 2019 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.