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Sport-Related Maxillo-Facial Fractures

Ruslin, Muhammad DDS, MS; Boffano, Paolo MD; ten Brincke, Y.J.D. BSc; Forouzanfar, Tymour MD, DDS, PhD; Brand, Henk S. PhD

Journal of Craniofacial Surgery: January 2016 - Volume 27 - Issue 1 - p e91–e94
doi: 10.1097/SCS.0000000000002242
Brief Clinical Studies

Sports and exercise are important causes of maxillofacial injuries. Different types of sports might differ in frequency and type of fractures. The aim of the present study was to explore the possible relation between the types of sport practiced and the frequency and nature of the facial bone fractures of patients presenting in an oral and maxillofacial surgery department of a Dutch university center. This study is based on an analysis of patient records containing maxillofacial fractures sustained between January 1, 2000 and April 1, 2014 at the Vrije Universiteit University Medical Center (VUmc) in Amsterdam, The Netherlands. The present study comprised data from 108 patients with 128 maxillofacial fractures. Seventy-nine percent of the patients were male and 21% were female. The patients ranged in age from 10 to 64 years old with a mean age of 30.6 ±12.0. The highest incidence of sport-related maxillofacial fractures occurred in individuals between the ages of 20 and 29. The most common sport-related fractures were zygoma complex fractures, followed by mandible fractures. Soccer and hockey were the most prominent causes of sport-related maxillofacial trauma in the present study. Coronoid process fractures were only observed in soccer players and not in other sports groups. Mandible angle fractures were relatively more frequent in rugby than in other sports. The results of this study suggest a relation between type of sport and the nature and frequency of the fractures it causes.

*Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Hasanuddin, Makassar, Indonesia

Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery/Oral Pathology, VU University Medical Center/Academic Center for Dentistry Amsterdam (ACTA)

Department of Medical-Dental Interaction, Academic Center for Dentistry Amsterdam (ACTA), Amsterdam, The Netherlands

Address correspondence and reprint requests to Muhammad Ruslin, DDS, MS, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery/Oral Pathology, VU University Medical Center, P.O. Box 7057, 1007 MB, Amsterdam, De Boelelaan 1117 1081 HV Amsterdam, The Netherlands; E-mail:;

Received 15 September, 2014

Accepted 14 September, 2015

The authors report no conflicts of interest.

© 2016 by Mutaz B. Habal, MD.