This article examines the clinical presentation of epiphora in Ancient Rome through the historico-medical analysis of the literary evidence provided by the verses by the poet Juvenal in his Satire VI. A gladiator's ophthalmological problem is interpreted as epiphora caused by traumatic injuries to the craniofacial region, compatible with those described in the palaeopathological literature. This analysis also focuses on the history of epiphora in antiquity and its treatment.
*Institute of Evolutionary Medicine, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland
†Archaeology, College of Humanities, Arts and Social Sciences, Flinders University, Adelaide, Australia
‡Department of Anthropology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC
§School of Medical History, Medical and Dental Association of the Province of Rimini, Emilia-Romagna
||Italian Committee for the Investigation of Claims of the Pseudosciences (CICAP), Padua, Italy.
Address correspondence and reprint requests to Michael E. Habicht, PhD, Institute of Evolutionary Medicine, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland; E-mail: email@example.com
Received 6 July, 2019
Accepted 9 July, 2019
FMG and MEH contributed equally to this work.
The authors report no conflicts of interest.