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Evaluation of the Accuracy of Virtual Planning in Orthognathic Surgery

A Morphometric Study

Zavattero, Emanuele, MD, PhD*; Romano, Michele, MD*; Gerbino, Giovanni, MD, DDS*; Rossi, Diego Sergio, MD, DDS*; Giannì, Aldo Bruno, MD, DDS; Ramieri, Guglielmo, MD, DDS*; Baj, Alessandro, MD*

Journal of Craniofacial Surgery: June 2019 - Volume 30 - Issue 4 - p 1214–1220
doi: 10.1097/SCS.0000000000005355
Clinical Studies

Background: The purpose of this study was to prospectively test the accuracy of computer-aided orthognathic surgery comparing the virtual surgical planning with the three-dimensional (3D) outcome.

Methods: Patients that underwent computer-assisted orthognathic surgery were retrospectively evaluated. The postoperative results were compared with the surgical plan, superimposing the postoperative computed tomography (CT) scan onto the virtual plan. Surface-based superimpositioning of the postoperative CT scan onto the 3D preoperative plan was carried out to visualize the discrepancy between preoperative virtual plan and postoperative 3D CT result.

Results: A total of 17 consecutive patients that underwent two-jaw computer-assisted orthognathic surgery were enrolled in the study.

The average linear differences for selected points were <1 mm in 12 patients out of 17. In 5 patients out of 17, the average differences for selected points were <2 mm.

Conclusions: An overall high degree of accuracy between the virtual plan and the postoperative result was found.

*Division of Maxillofacial Surgery, Fondazione IRCCS Ca’ Granda, Policlinico Hospital Milano Department of Biomedical, Dental sciences University of Milano, Italy

Division of Maxillofacial Surgery, Surgical Science Department, Maxillofacial Unit, University of Torino, Torino, Ialy.

Address correspondence and reprint requests to Emanuele Zavattero, MD, PhD, Corso Dogliotti 14, 10126 Torino, Italy; E-mail:

Received 19 May, 2018

Accepted 1 December, 2018

The authors report no conflicts of interest.

© 2019 by Mutaz B. Habal, MD.