The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence of facial trauma in handball players in South Korea.
Forty-one handball coaches responded to an 11-item standardized questionnaire. Twenty-three coaches (56.1%) stated that their players had experienced a facial injury and reported 56 patients.
The nose was the most common site of the injuries (51.7%), followed by the eye (19.6%) and cheek (12.5%). The most common causes of nose injuries were being hit by a hand (26.8%), elbow (12.5%), and ball (8.9%). Most of the nose injuries were fractures (41.1%). The most common causes of the injuries were being hit by a hand (37.5%), elbow (30.3%), and ball (16.1%). The most common type of facial injury was fracture (41.1%), followed by contusion (26.8%), and laceration (21.4%). The most common position of the player was pivot (25.0%), followed by center back (21.4%), and right back (19.6%). Among the facial injuries experienced by pivots, the nose (12.5%) was the most common site, followed by the eye (8.9%). The most common causes of the injuries in pivots were being hit by a hand (12.5%) and an elbow (12.5%). The mean convalescence period after the facial injuries was 3.2 ± 1.6 weeks. No respondents stated that their players wore a mouthguard.
Team doctors should be aware of the high frequency of nasal bone fractures and prepare for them. A suture set should be prepared for lacerations. If a player is hit in the eye by a ball, the possibility of retinal injury should be considered.
Department of Plastic Surgery, Inha University School of Medicine, Incheon, Korea.
Address correspondence and reprint requests to Kun Hwang, MD, PhD, Department of Plastic Surgery, Inha University School of Medicine, 27 Inhang-ro, Jung-gu, Incheon 22332, Korea; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Received 24 July, 2018
Accepted 18 November, 2018
This study was supported by a grant from Inha University Research Grant (2019).
The authors report no conflicts of interest.