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The Pattern of Orbital Fractures Managed at Two Referral Centers in Nairobi, Kenya

Manana, Wayne BDS, MDS-OMFS*; Odhiambo, Walter A. BDS, MDS-OMFS; Chindia, Mark L. BDS, MSc, FRCS; Koech, Kennedy BDS, MDS

Journal of Craniofacial Surgery: June 2017 - Volume 28 - Issue 4 - p e338–e342
doi: 10.1097/SCS.0000000000003579
Brief Clinical Studies

Orbital fractures are one of the commonest injuries in mid-face trauma and can lead to significant functional and cosmetic defects. This study was aimed at analyzing the pattern of orbital fractures at 2 referral centers in Nairobi. It was a descriptive prospective hospital-based study of the demographics, etiology, clinico-radiological features, and management modalities among patients presenting with orbital fractures at the University of Nairobi Dental Hospital and Kenyatta National Referral Hospital in Nairobi, Kenya. A total of 60 patients (52 males, 8 females; P <0.05) with confirmed orbital fractures were recruited during the 6-months study period. Orbital fractures occurred most frequently in the 21 to 40-year-old age group (80%, P<0.05). The principal etiological factors were motor cycle crashes; 30%, interpersonal violence 23.3%, public vehicle crushes 20%, private vehicle crushes; 10%, injury from flying objects 10% and falls 8.3%. The most commonly affected anatomical sites were the floor (75%), the lateral wall (71.7%), infra-orbital rim (66.7%), zygomatico-frontal suture (63.3%). There were 5 (8.3%) cases of total blindness

The impure orbital fractures that involve the satellite bones especially the zygomatic complex predominate.

*Department of Dentistry, Division of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, College of Health Sciences, University of Zimbabwe, Harare, Zimbabwe

Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, School of Dental Sciences, University of Nairobi

Kenyatta National Referral and Teacing Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya.

Address correspondence and reprint requests to Dr Walter A. Odhiambo, BDS, MDS-OMFS, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box !9676 00202 KNH, Nairobi, Kenya; E-mail:;

Received 30 October, 2016

Accepted 15 December, 2016

This study was conducted and presented by Dr Wayne Manana as dissertation for the award of the degree of the Master of Dental Surgery in Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery of the University of Nairobi in the year 2014.

The authors report no conflicts of interest.

© 2017 by Mutaz B. Habal, MD.