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Incidence and Severity of Maxillofacial Injuries During the Syrian Civil War in Syrian Soldiers and Civilians

Ucak, Murat, MD

doi: 10.1097/SCS.0000000000005440
Original Article: PDF Only

Purpose: The aim of this study was to assess the maxillofacial injuries (MFIs) and our surgical approaches in the Syrian Civil War that emerged during the spring of 2011, among Syria's government and Syrians.

Patients and Methods: The present study is a prospective clinical study of injured patients at Turkey's Border Hospitals during the Syrian Civil Conflict. Patients’ data cover to all emergency and plastic surgery hospitals throughout Turkey. We assessed the patients’ data according to location of trauma, duration of hospitalization, the severity and etiology of MFIs with the Injury Severity Score.

Results: MFIs were found in 112 of the 956 wounded. The injuries occurred in 69 civilians (61.6%) and 43 soldiers (38.3%). The mean age ranged from 8 to 66 (mean: 29,1 ± 12). Eighty-two percent or higher rates of the injuries needed >4 days’ hospitalization. We observed the mortality at a rate of 13.3% for the MFIs. Majority of the MFIs were accompanied by >3 concomitant injuries (n = 59; 52.6%). Most of the facial injuries were located at Mandibula (n = 75; 66.9%), Maxilla (n = 69; 61.6%) and orbitofrontal (n = 52; 46.4%) regions.

Conclusions: Severity and incidence of MFIs were extremely high compared with previously published studies of other wars, especially affecting the civilians in the Syrian Civil War. The high rates of LeFort III fractures exhibit its devastating damages on civilians.

Department of Plastic Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgery, Antakya Defne State Hospital, Hatay, Turkey.

Address correspondence and reprint requests to Murat Ucak, MD, Hatay Defne Private Hospital, 31000 Hatay, Turkey; E-mail:

Received 1 November, 2018

Accepted 28 January, 2019

Type of Study and Level of Evidence: Level-II, prospective comparative study, Therapeutic Analysis.

Assessment of Maxillofacial Injury in the Syrian Civil Conflict

Declaration of patient consent: The author certifies that they have obtained all appropriate patient consent forms. In the form, the patient(s) has/have given his/her/their consent for his/her/their images and other clinical information to be reported in the journal.

The author reports no conflicts of interest.

© 2019 by Mutaz B. Habal, MD.