Clinical Study: PDF OnlyEffect of Observer's Sex and Chin Prominences on the Perception of the Lower Lip-Chin Prominence AngleLee, Jae-Yeol PhD*; Han, Sang Hee DDS†; Choi, Youn-Kyung PhD‡; Kim, Jinmi PhD§; Park, Soo-Byung PhD†; Kim, Yong-Il PhD†,||Author Information *Department of Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery †Department of Orthodontics, Dental Research Institute, Pusan National University Hospital, Yangsan ‡Department of Orthodontics, Pusan National University Hospital §Department of Biostatistics, Biomedical Research Institute, Pusan National University Hospital, Busan ||Dental and Life Science Institute, Pusan National University, Yangsan, South Korea. Address correspondence and reprint requests to Soo-Byung Park, PhD, Yong-Il Kim, PhD, Department of Orthodontics, School of Dentistry, Pusan National University, Geumoro20, Mulgeumeup, Yangsan, South Korea, 50612; E-mail: [email protected], [email protected] Received 31 March, 2021 Accepted 3 August, 2021 SBP and YIK contributed equally to this work. This study was supported by a 2-year research grant from Pusan National University. The authors report no conflicts of interest. Journal of Craniofacial Surgery: September 14, 2021 - Volume - Issue - doi: 10.1097/SCS.0000000000008138 Buy PAP Metrics Abstract This study aimed to identify the preferred range of lower lip-chin prominence angles in the Korean population and evaluate the effect of the individual lower lip-chin prominence angle on perceptions of esthetic chin profile. Chin prominence silhouettes were used to assess the lower lip-chin prominence preference. The observers randomly categorized each image as (1) normal, (2) slightly abnormal but not requiring surgical correction, and (3) abnormal and requiring surgery. Individual lower-chin prominence angles of all observers were analyzed using standardized clinical photographs. The normal range of lower lip-chin prominence angle is 0° to 25°; socially acceptable range is 0° to −10°, 25° to 40°; range needing surgery is −10° to −30° and 40° to 45°. Women are more tolerant to chin protrusion. A protrusive chin is more acceptable in observers with retrusive chin profile. Skeletal Class II profile is more acceptable than skeletal Class III in the Korean population. The individual lower-chin prominence angle could affect perception of desired surgery. These findings indicate that patient-specific treatment planning is important in achieving satisfaction in chin surgery. © 2021 by Mutaz B. Habal, MD.