Traditionally, in zygomaticomaxillary complex and orbital fractures, miniplates and titanium orbital mesh are used and adapted intraoperatively, which may cause fatigue of the metal and increase the surgical time. Recently, computer-assisted surgery and 3-dimensional printing enable the surgeon to employ 3-dimensional segmentation and mirroring tools, which mimic the pretraumatized anatomy on which the miniplates and titanium orbital mesh are preoperatively molded to precisely duplicate the orbital volume, enophthalmos, and zygomatic bone position.
To evaluate the results of computer technology using 3-dimensional printing model to prebend miniplates and titanium orbital mesh in the restoration of orbital volume, enophthalmos, and zygomatic bone position in the initial management of patients with zygomaticomaxillary complex and/or orbital fractures.
Patients and Methods:
This prospective clinical study included 10 Iraqi male patients who met the eligibility criteria and subjected to open reduction and internal fixation utilizing virtual surgical planning and a 3-dimensional model to prebend miniplates and titanium orbital mesh as a treatment modality for facial fractures. The data were analyzed according to the orbital volume, enophthalmos, zygomatic bone position, age, gender, etiology of the fracture, and complications. The patients were radiographically followed up with a computed tomography scan at 4 months postoperatively. The statistical analysis was performed using percentages, the mean±SD, Shapiro–Wilk test, Paired t test, One Way Anova, and Independent t test.
The age of the patients ranged from 18 to 66 years, with an average of 28.6 years and a SD of±14.5 years. Regarding gender, all patients were males. By utilizing virtual surgical planning and 3-dimentional model to prebend miniplates and titanium orbital mesh and concerning the fracture types, which include the zygomaticomaxillary complex, orbital, and combined fractures, there was no significant difference between the measurement of intact side and 4 months postoperatively in orbital volume, enophthalmos, and zygomatic bone position (P >0.05).
This study demonstrated that computer-aided techniques, virtual planning, and the use of prebend miniplates and titanium orbital mesh enable anatomically precise reduction and fixation of the orbital, zygomaticomaxillary complex, and combined fractures regarding orbital volume, enophthalmos, and zygomatic bone position.