Tissue expansion (TE) in pediatric surgery provides vascularized tissue to attain functional and esthetic goals in a broad range of reconstructive procedures. Our study evaluates the demographic, operative, and short-term outcomes of TE in pediatric patients utilizing the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program-Pediatric (NSQIP-P) database and highlights factors associated with postoperative complications.
Materials and Methods:
Retrospective review of a large multicenter database of 402 pediatric patients that underwent TE within the NSQIP-P database from 2013 to 2020 at freestanding general acute care children’s hospitals, children’s hospitals within a larger hospital, specialty children’s hospitals, or general acute care hospitals with a pediatric wing. Patient demographics, clinical risk factors, operative information, and postoperative outcomes were collected with an odds ratio analysis of risk factors.
Patients were majority female (55.5%), White (63.2%), and non-Hispanic (67.4%). The minority were born prematurely (11.9%) and had congenital malformations (16.7%). Complications occurred in 5.7%, unplanned readmission in 4.5%, and unplanned operation in 6.5% of patients. Complications lead to readmission in 2.5% and return to the operating room in 3.2% of patients. American Society of Anesthesiology (ASA) score III-IV, congenital malformations, >1-day hospital stay, and pulmonary, neurologic, and hematologic comorbidities were associated with the greatest increase in odds of complication.
This study utilizes the NSQIP-P to provide a comprehensive multicenter view of pediatric patients undergoing TE. Increased understanding of risk factors for complications allows for guidance in patient selection and helps in achieving favorable surgical outcomes.