Encephaloceles rarely develop following traumatic skull fractures. Given their low incidence, the clinical presentations and management strategies of these lesions are confined to case reports and limited case series. A systematic literature review was performed using PubMed, Ovid, and Web of Science databases to identify relevant articles using Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. A total of 37 articles met inclusion criteria, including the case presented herein. These articles reported 52 traumatic encephaloceles. Mean patient age was 25.3 years (range 6 mo–66 y) with a male predominance (63%, 33/52). The most common bony defects resulting in encephalocele formation were the orbital roof (52%, 27/52), ethmoid (35%, 18/52), and sphenoid (10%, 5/52). Mean time from traumatic injury to initial presentation was 21.3 months (range 0 d–36 y) with a bimodal distribution split between immediately following the traumatic injury (57%, 26/46) or in a delayed manner (43%, 20/46). Common presentations of orbital roof, frontonasal, and temporal bone encephaloceles were exophthalmos (85%, 23/27), cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhea (71%, 17/24), and hearing loss (100%, 4/4), respectively. Operative approach, repair technique, and materials used for encephalocele reduction were highly variable. Surgical intervention afforded definitive symptomatic improvement or resolution in the majority of cases (89%, 42/47). Clinical outcomes did not differ between orbital, frontonasal, or temporal bone encephaloceles (P=0.438). Traumatic encephaloceles are a rare entity with diverse presenting symptomatology dependent upon the location of fracture dehiscence. Surgical intervention affords symptomatic improvement in the majority of cases irrespective of encephalocele location, time to presentation, or operative approach.