To investigate the anatomical, pathogenetic, and pharmacological characteristics of herpes zoster ophthalmicus (HZO)– related ophthalmoplegia.
Case report–based systematic review was performed.
This study included 96 patients (54 [56.25%] women and 42 [43.75%] men [P = 0.221]). The mean age at presentation was 64.32 ± 17.48 years. All the patients included in the study had HZO– related ophthalmoplegia, with rash presenting as initial symptom in 87 (90.62%) cases, and diplopia in 9 (9.38%) cases. Thirty–seven (38.54%) patients achieved complete recovery, whereas 59 (61.46%) patients had permanent ophthalmoplegia. Females recovered in 26/54 cases and males in 11/42 cases (P = 0.028). Recovery rates after peroral versus intravenous antivirals (15/38 versus 19/46) and > 10 days versus ≤10 days antiviral treatment (22/54 versus 12/30) did not significantly differ (P = 0.865 and P = 0.947, respectively). immunocompetent patients treated with corticosteroids had significantly better recovery rates compared to immunodeficient counterparts (17/34 [50.00%] and 5/22 [22.73%], respectively [P = 0.041]).
The outcome of HZO–related ophthalmoplegia is associated with gender, immune status, corticosteroid use, and time of antiviral treatment initiation.