Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is seen in up to two-third of the patients with syndromic craniosynostosis. Gold standard to diagnose OSA is the hospital-based polysomnography, although alternatively ambulatory home sleep apnea devices are available. Aim of this study was to assess (1) accuracy of ambulatory sleep studies, (2) clinical decision making following sleep studies, and (3) course of OSA during long-term follow-up.
Materials and Methods:
A retrospective cohort study was performed in children with syndromic craniosynostosis, of whom polysomnographies and home sleep apnea device recordings were collected. Measurements of apnea-hypopnea index, respiratory event index, total sleep/recording time, heart rate, oxygen saturation, and oxygen desaturation index were derived from the sleep studies. Primary clinical care subsequent to the sleep studies was determined using electronic patient files.
In total, 123 patients were included, with 149 polysomnographies and 108 ambulatory studies. Performing an ambulatory study was associated with increased age at time of measurement (OR=1.1, 95% CI=1.02 to 1.17, P=0.01). No significant difference was found between the 2 types of sleep studies regarding sleep study parameters. Subsequent to sleep studies, patients with no-mild OSA had expectant care whereas patients with moderate-severe OSA underwent OSA-related treatment. OSA was most prevalent up to the age of 5 years, but also noticeable after the age of 10 years in patients with the Crouzon syndrome.
Ambulatory sleep studies are reliable for diagnosing OSA in older children and can be used to determine clinical decision-making. Hence, we recommend implementing ambulatory sleep studies in a protocolized management.