Most literature regarding traumatic Le Fort or maxillary fractures exists in the adult population, with limited information regarding the epidemiology and management of pediatric fractures. The purpose of this study was to evaluate fracture mechanism, surgical management, and associated injuries in pediatric patients with Le Fort fractures.
A retrospective chart analysis of all pediatric patients age ≤18 years diagnosed with facial fractures at a single level 1 trauma center over a 10-year period (January 2006–December 2015) was performed. Demographics, fracture location, mechanism of injury, and hospital course were abstracted as well as associated injuries and need for operative management.
A total of 1274 patients met inclusion criteria. Sixty-nine (5.4%) presented with Le Fort fractures. Factors associated with Le Fort fractures included motor vehicle collisions (P < 0.001), increased age (P < 0.001), and traumatic brain injury (P < 0.04). Patients with Le Fort fractures were more likely to need intensive care unit admission (P < 0.001), surgical management (P < 0.001), transfusions (P < 0.001), secondary fixation surgery (P < 0.001), and have a longer length of stay (P < 0.001). Multivariate showed increased odds for increased age (OR 1.1; 95%CI 1.04–1.17) and concomitant orbit fractures (OR 8.33; 95%CI 4.08–19.34). Decreased odds were associated for all mechanisms of injury other than motor vehicle collisions (Other blunt trauma: OR 0.36; 95%CI 0.2–0.6. Penetrating trauma: OR 0.13; 95%CI 0.01–0.6).
Maxillary or Le Fort fractures represent a small portion of pediatric facial fractures but require high rates of operative management. The high velocity required to create this fracture type is associated with significant traumatic comorbidities, which can complicate the hospital course.