Original ArticlesModeling Medical Education The Impact of Three-Dimensional Printed Models on Medical Student Education in Plastic SurgeryLane, Jaina C. BA; Black, Jonathan S. MD, FACSAuthor Information Department of Plastic Surgery, University of Virginia School of Medicine, Charlottesville, VA. Address correspondence and reprint requests to Jonathan S. Black, MD, FACS, Department of Plastic and Maxillofacial Surgery, University of Virginia Health Systems, West Complex, Fourth Floor, 1300 Jefferson Park Ave., Charlottesville, VA 22908; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Received 23 March, 2020 Accepted 29 March, 2020 The authors report no conflicts of interest. Supplemental digital contents are available for this article. Direct URL citations appear in the printed text and are provided in the HTML and PDF versions of this article on the journal's Web site (www.jcraniofacialsurgery.com). Journal of Craniofacial Surgery: June 2020 - Volume 31 - Issue 4 - p 1018-1021 doi: 10.1097/SCS.0000000000006567 Buy SDC Metrics Abstract Purpose: Trainee exposure to craniofacial pathology can be limited due to rare disease presentation, revealing a need for tools that assist in visualizing complex 3D pathologic anatomy. 3D-printed models show potential as a useful aid, allowing for physical manipulation and hands-on experience. This study investigates their educational value in teaching craniofacial pathology and surgical repair. Methods: Forty-four medical students randomly assigned to a control group or model group were given a PowerPoint presentation-based module on craniosynostosis and surgical repair. The model group was also provided with 3D-printed models of sagittal, metopic, and bicoronal synostosis, created using patient-specific preoperative computed tomography data. A survey using the Likert scale evaluated participants’ learning experience. Pre- and postmodule scores on a 10-question multiple choice quiz were recorded. Results: The survey showed that students in the model group reported better understanding of the anatomy (4.86 ± 0.15 versus 4.26 ± 0.22; P = 0.0001) and visualization of the pathology (4.76 ± 0.23 versus 4.26 ± 0.25; P = 0.0064), gaining an improved understanding of surgical approach (4.38 ± 0.37 versus 3.83 ± 0.29; P = 0.0266), which was more effectively taught (4.24 ± 0.33 versus 3.30 ± 0.38; P = 0.0007) with the 3D-printed models. The mean pre- and post-module quiz scores between groups were similar. Conclusion: 3D-printed models demonstrated an improved learning experience for medical students as shown by survey. These findings suggest a potential use for 3D-printed models in medical education of craniofacial pathology and surgery. © 2020 by Mutaz B. Habal, MD.