Patients with Crouzon syndrome develop various types of anatomic deformities due to different forms of craniosynostosis, yet they have similar craniofacial characteristics. However, exact homology is not evident. Different pathology then may be best treated by different forms of surgical technique. Therefore, precise classification of Crouzon syndrome, based on individual patterns of cranial suture involvement is needed.
Ninety-five computed tomography (CT) scans (Crouzon, n = 33; control, n = 62) were included in this study. All the CT scans are divided into 4 types based on premature closure of sutures: class I = coronal and lambdoidal synostosis; class II = sagittal synostosis; class III = pansynostosis; and class IV = “Others.” The CT scan anatomy was measured by Materialise software.
The class III, pansynostosis, is the most prevalent (63.6%). The classes I, III, and IV of Crouzon have significantly shortened entire anteroposterior cranial base length, with the shortest base length in class III. The external cranial measurements in class I show primarily a decreased posterior facial skeleton, while the class III presented with holistic facial skeleton reduction. Class II has the least severe craniofacial malformations, while class III had the most severe.
The morphology of patients with Crouzon syndrome is not identical in both cranial base and facial characteristics, especially when they associated with different subtypes of cranial suture synostosis. The classification of Crouzon syndrome proposed in this study, summarizes the differences among each subgroup of craniosynostosis suture involvement, which, theoretically, may ultimately influence both the timing and type of surgical intervention.