Maxillofacial injuries in children are rarer in proportion in comparison to adult facial injuries, and they constitute 1% to 15% of all facial bone fractures. The causes and incidence of maxillofacial injuries in children differ based on social, cultural, and environmental factors.
The purpose of this study is to investigate the etiology, epidemiology, and type of injury in pediatric facial injuries, as well as analyzing types of fractures, related injuries, and treatment options.
Materials and Methods:
The study obtained the approval of the local ethics board to include 55 pediatric patients in the age group of 0 to 18 years who received inpatient treatment or surgical interventions owing to maxillofacial trauma at an Esthetic, Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery Clinic between January 2016 and December 2018. The patients were examined under 5 groups based on their causes of injury: motorized vehicle accidents (MVA); bicycle; falls (from height or ground level); assault; firearm injuries. They were examined under 6 groups based on the location of their fractures: mandibula, maxilla, orbita, frontal bone, zygomatic arch, nasal bone.
The study included 55 patients of the ages 0 to 18 with the mean age of 11.6 ± 3.2 years. Thirty-seven of the patients (67.2%) were male, whereas 18 (32.7%) were female. Among the causes of injury, the highest number of patients was 25 (45.4%) with MVA. The most frequent location of the fractures was the mandible.
Consequently, experiences regarding pediatric maxillofacial traumas are limited, and there is no complete consensus on treatment. In difference to the interventions in adults, the dental structure in pediatric patients need to be definitely considered, the least invasive intervention form should be preferred, and observation and follow-up should be practiced in minimally displaced fractures rather than surgical interventions.