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Our Treatment Approach in Pediatric Maxillofacial Traumas

Bilgen, Fatma MD; Ural, Alper MD; Bekerecioğlu, Mehmet MD

doi: 10.1097/SCS.0000000000005896
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Background: Maxillofacial injuries in children are rarer in proportion in comparison to adult facial injuries, and they constitute 1% to 15% of all facial bone fractures. The causes and incidence of maxillofacial injuries in children differ based on social, cultural, and environmental factors.

Aim: The purpose of this study is to investigate the etiology, epidemiology, and type of injury in pediatric facial injuries, as well as analyzing types of fractures, related injuries, and treatment options.

Materials and Methods: The study obtained the approval of the local ethics board to include 55 pediatric patients in the age group of 0 to 18 years who received inpatient treatment or surgical interventions owing to maxillofacial trauma at an Esthetic, Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery Clinic between January 2016 and December 2018. The patients were examined under 5 groups based on their causes of injury: motorized vehicle accidents (MVA); bicycle; falls (from height or ground level); assault; firearm injuries. They were examined under 6 groups based on the location of their fractures: mandibula, maxilla, orbita, frontal bone, zygomatic arch, nasal bone.

Results: The study included 55 patients of the ages 0 to 18 with the mean age of 11.6 ± 3.2 years. Thirty-seven of the patients (67.2%) were male, whereas 18 (32.7%) were female. Among the causes of injury, the highest number of patients was 25 (45.4%) with MVA. The most frequent location of the fractures was the mandible.

Conclusions: Consequently, experiences regarding pediatric maxillofacial traumas are limited, and there is no complete consensus on treatment. In difference to the interventions in adults, the dental structure in pediatric patients need to be definitely considered, the least invasive intervention form should be preferred, and observation and follow-up should be practiced in minimally displaced fractures rather than surgical interventions.

Department of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Kahramanmaras Sutcu Imam University, Kahramanmaras, Turkey.

Address correspondence and reprint requests to Fatma Bilgen, MD, Kahramanmaras Sutcu Imam University, Tip Fakültesi Hastanesi, Plastik Rekonstrüktif ve Estetik Cerrahi Servisi, Kahramanmaras 46000, Turkey; E-mail: fatmabilgen81@gmail.com

Received 13 June, 2019

Accepted 11 July, 2019

The authors report no conflicts of interest.

Supplemental digital contents are available for this article. Direct URL citations appear in the printed text and are provided in the HTML and PDF versions of this article on the journal's Web site (www.jcraniofacialsurgery.com).

© 2019 by Mutaz B. Habal, MD.