The aim was to analyze systemic and oral aspects of patients with myelomeningocele (MMC), relevant for their dental treatment. Dental treatment of these individuals requires the dentist's extensive knowledge and careful information to determine the dental treatment plan. Thirty participants aged 3 to 16 years were divided into 2 groups: study group (15 MMC individuals) and control group (15 healthy subjects). All patients were evaluated for: systemic conditions, use of medications, sequela of the underlying pathology, oral hygiene, diseases, convulsion, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), allergy, behavior, learning, and mouth physical examination to assess the oral conditions. The study group presented: higher percentage using drugs (P < 0.05), 40% had convulsions (P < 0.05), 86.67% using CSF shunt, 53.33% presented latex allergies (P < 0.05), 53.33% were classified as anxious and with cognitive deficit (P < 0.05), showed more gingivitis (P < 0.05). The MMC individuals, in the majority, have shown cognitive impairment and anxious behavior, use of controlled drugs, convulsion, CSF shunt use, and latex allergy. The presence of periodontal tissue damage was higher in patients with MMC.