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Anatomy of Infraorbital Foramen

Influence of Sex, Side, and Cranium Size

Gibelli, Daniele, MD, PhD*; Borlando, Alessia, BSc; Barni, Luisa, BSc, PhD*; Sartori, Patrizia, BSc, PhD*; Cappella, Annalisa, BSc, PhD*; Pucciarelli, Valentina, MBiotech, PhD*; Cattaneo, Cristina, BSc, MD; Sforza, Chiarella, MD*

Journal of Craniofacial Surgery: June 2019 - Volume 30 - Issue 4 - p 1284–1288
doi: 10.1097/SCS.0000000000005254
Anatomical Studies

Several researchers have analyzed the collocation of infraorbital foramen, but no study has so far considered the possible influence of cranial size.

Three measurements (distances from anterior nasal spine, inferior orbital rim, angle at the intersection between the line from anterior nasal spine and the transversal plane parallel to the Frankfurt plane) were taken on 100 skulls belonging to a contemporary skeletal collection. In addition, maximum cranial length, maximum cranial breadth, cranial height, and bizygomatic breadth were measured, together with 2 indices (horizontal cephalic index and Giardina Y-index). Differences according to sex and side were assessed through 2-way analysis of variance test (P <0.05). Measurements showing statistically significant differences according to sex were further assessed through 1-way analysis of covariance test including cranial measurements and indices as covariates (P <0.05).

Statistically significant differences according to sex and side were found respectively for the distance from anterior nasal spine and the angle at infraorbital foramen (P <0.05). One-way analysis of covariance test verified that the sexual dimorphism of infraorbital foramen- anterior nasal spine distance was independent from the general measurements of cranium.

The present study first proved that sexually dimorphic parameters useful for the localization of infraorbital foramen do not depend upon the cranium size.

*Dipartimento di Scienze Biomediche per la Salute

LABANOF, Laboratorio di Antropologia e Odontologia Forense, Dipartimento di Scienze Biomediche per la Salute, Università degli Studi di Milano.

Address correspondence and reprint requests to Dr Daniele Gibelli, MD, PhD, Dipartimento di Scienze Biomediche per la Salute, Università degli Studi di Milano, V. Mangiagalli 31, Milan—Italy; E-mail:

Received 22 October, 2018

Accepted 17 November, 2018

Daniele Gibelli: ORCID: 0000-0002-9591-1047

Luisa Barni: ORCID: 0000-0002-2414-408X

Patrizia Sartori: ORCID: 0000-0002-4806-2337

Annalisa Cappella: ORCID: 0000-0002-4527-4203

Valentina Pucciarelli: ORCID: 0000-0002-9165-133X

Cristina Cattaneo: ORCID: 0000-0003-0086-029X

Chiarella Sforza: ORCID: 0000-0001-6532-6464

The authors report no conflicts of interest.

© 2019 by Mutaz B. Habal, MD.