Posterior cranial vault distraction osteogenesis (PVDO) has gained popularity as the initial intervention in patients with syndromic craniosynostosis. Patients may require secondary frontal orbital advancement (FOA) following PVDO, but little is known about the perioperative risks associated with this staged management. The purpose of this study is to compare the perioperative morbidity profile of secondary FOA (study) to that of primary FOA (control).
A retrospective review was conducted for patients with syndromic or complex craniosynostosis undergoing FOA between 2004 and 2017. Univariate and multivariate analysis of demographic and perioperative data were performed.
Forty-three subjects met inclusion criteria, 17 in the study cohort and 26 in the control cohort. The 2 cohorts were similar with regards to diagnosis and suture involvement, as well as weight-adjusted estimated blood loss, blood transfusion volume, and length of hospital stay (P > 0.050). Secondary FOA procedures required longer operating time (231 ± 58 versus 264 ± 62 min, P = 0.031) and anesthesia time (341 ± 60 versus 403 ± 56 min, P = 0.002). The secondary FOA cohort had a significantly greater proportion of procedures with difficult wound closure (19% versus 59%, P = 0.008). Two subjects in the study cohort developed a wound dehiscence, compared with 1 subject in the control cohort (P = 0.552). Frontal orbital advancement as a secondary procedure after PVDO was a predictor variable in multivariate analysis for wound difficulties (odds ratio 8.6, P = 0.038).
Syndromic and complex craniosynostosis may safely be managed with initial PVDO followed by FOA, with some increased wound closure difficulty.