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Normal Patterns of Nasometric Values in Adult Jordanian Speakers of Arabic

Khwaileh, Fadwa A., PhD, SLP; Alfwaress, Firas S.D., PhD, CCC-SLP

doi: 10.1097/SCS.0000000000004719
Original Articles

Purpose: The study sought to establish normative nasometric values for adult Jordanian speakers of Arabic. Gender-related differences and intraspeaker variability of nasalance scores were investigated.

Methods: A total of 113 adult speakers of Jordanian Arabic (56 men and 57 women) without speech-language and hearing impairments or craniofacial anomalies ranging in age between 18 and 55 participated in the study. Nasometer II, Model 6400 was used to obtain nasalance scores as speakers produced 3 recitations for each of the 3 standardized passages consisting of an oral passage, an oronasal passage, and nasal sentences. Descriptive statistics of nasalance scores for each passage were obtained and gender-related differences were determined by ANOVA. Standard deviation for the 3 repetitions for each passage was considered an index for intraspeaker variability.

Results: Average nasalance for each passage was (11.23%) for the oral passage, (25.48%) for the oronasal passage, and (51.92%) for the nasal sentence. There was no gender effect on nasalance on the oral passage, however women exhibited higher nasalance scores than men on the both oronasal passage (P = 0.002) and nasal sentences (P = 0.017). Intraspeaker variability for all speakers fell below 4.5% with repeated readings.

Conclusion: The study provides normative nasometric data for Arabic speaking Jordanian adults to serve as references for the assessment of velopharyngeal dysfunction in craniofacial clinics. Arabic speakers demonstrated different nasalance scores than speakers of other languages. Gender differences can be attributed to variations in anatomical structure and velopharyngeal function between men and women.

Department of Rehabilitation Sciences, Faculty of Applied Medical Sciences, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid, Jordan.

Address correspondence and reprint requests to Fadwa A. Khwaileh, PhD, SLP, Assistant Professor, Department of Rehabilitation, Faculty of Applied Medical Sciences, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid 22110, POB 3030, Jordan; E-mail:

Received 20 February, 2018

Accepted 12 May, 2018

This work was supported by the Deanship of Research at Jordan University of Science and Technology [grant number 126/2012].

The authors report no conflicts of interest.

© 2018 by Mutaz B. Habal, MD.