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Achondroplasia

Orocraniofacial Features and Orthodontic-Surgical Management Guidelines Proposal

Pineau, Mallouel, MD*; Farrow, Emilie, MD*; Nicot, Romain, MD*; Ferri, Joël, PU-PH*,†

doi: 10.1097/SCS.0000000000004819
Clinical Studies

In this study, the authors aimed to describe orocraniofacial features and to suggest orthodontic-surgical managements in achondroplasia, based on a literature review. The authors focused on skeletal and dentoalveolar malocclusion in order to highlight the place of orthognathic surgery, based on our experience of 3 patients. Maxillary hypoplasia in achondroplasia typically results in an Angle class III malocclusion with an anterior open bite. The other orocraniofacial features include enlarged calvarium, prominent forehead and frontal bossing, midface hypoplasia, elongated lower face and saddle-shaped nose due to lack of development of the nasomaxillary complex.

All our patients had a typical facial appearance but each of them had their own particularities regarding medical history and severity of the dentoskeletal dysmorphosis. Two of them were successfully treated by orthognathic surgery; the other declined surgical treatment and underwent orthopedic treatment only (anchorage plates). The treatment failure of this 3rd patient raises the question of the efficiency of anchorage plates in achondroplasia. In the light of the literature and our results, the authors conclude the need for personalized management based on age, medical history, severity of the dentoskeletal dysmorphosis, functional and/or esthetic disorders, and the patient's needs and requests. In any patient, orthodontic management should be initiated at an early age, and orthognathic surgery modalities should be personalized and adapted to each situation.

*Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, University of Lille, CHU Lille

International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Medicine, Lille, France.

Address correspondence and reprint requests to Dr Mallouel Pineau, MD, Service de Chirurgie Maxillo-Faciale et Stomatologie Hôpital Roger Salengro, Bd du Professeur Emile Laine, 59037 Lille, France; E-mail: mal_well@hotmail.fr

Received 27 March, 2018

Accepted 12 June, 2018

The authors report no conflicts of interest.

© 2018 by Mutaz B. Habal, MD.