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Characteristics of Maxillary Morphology in Unilateral Cleft Lip and Palate Patients Compared to Normal Subjects and Skeletal Class III Patients

Jiang, Chanyuan MD; Yin, Ningbei MD; Zheng, Yilue MD; Song, Tao MD

doi: 10.1097/SCS.0000000000002028
Brief Clinical Studies

This study is to investigate the anatomical features of maxillae in unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP) patients with maxillary retrusion. Additionally, the dissimilarities of retruded maxillae between the UCLP patients and the skeletal class III patients were compared. Craniofacial measurements were carried out among 32 UCLP adult patients with maxillary retrusion (GC), 24 adult patients in class III (SNA < 80°, ANB < 0°) patients (GIII), and 32 normal controls (GN). The authors measured the width and length of the maxillae, as well as their relative positions to the coronal plane passing through basion. The independent sample group t test was performed, and P < 0.05 was regarded as statistically significant. In the GC group, the anterior and posterior maxillary length (A1-P3M⊥CP and P3M-P6M⊥CP) and overall maxillary length (A1-P6M⊥CP) at the dental level, the interdental widths of the maxillae, the maxillary volume (GM), and the volume consisting of maxilla and maxillary sinus (GT) significantly reduced compared with the GN group (P < 0.05). The distances from the points on the maxillae to the coronal plane (A1⊥CP, P3M⊥CP, and P6M⊥CP) in the GC and GIII groups were smaller than those in the GN group (P < 0.05). In summary, for the UCLP patients, the decreased prominence of maxillary complex could be mainly caused by the shortened maxillary length; meanwhile, posterior position of the maxillary body may have some influence on the maxillary protrusion. While for the class III patients, maxillary retrusion was resulted from malposition and malmorphology on an equal basis.

Center of Cleft Lip and Palate Treatment, Plastic Surgery Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China.

Address correspondence and reprint requests to Tao Song, MD, Center for Cleft Lip and Palate Treatment, Plastic and Surgery Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Science, Peking Union Medical College, No 33, Ba-Da-Chu Rd, Shi Jing Shan District, Beijing 100144, China; E-mail:

Received 6 December, 2014

Accepted 28 June, 2015

This work was supported by the Capital Medical Development Fund of China (Z141107002514095).

The authors report no conflicts of interest.

© 2015 by Mutaz B. Habal, MD.