The aim of this study was to compare the disc positions and condylar changes induced by different stretching forces in the modified animal model
for anterior disc displacement
(ADD) of the temporomandibular joint
In the experimental group, 30 rabbits were equally divided into 3 subgroups and underwent surgical ADD via different stretching forces: group A with 0.5 N, group B with 1 N, and group C with 2 N. In the sham group, 6 rabbits underwent the same surgery without the disc being pulled anteriorly. The diagnosis of ADD was made when the anterior band of the disc was located anteriorly to the articular eminence. Histologic and radiographic changes of the condyles were observed under light microscopy and micro-computed tomography scanning 1 week after surgery.
The success rates of ADD were both 100% in groups B and C and 70% in group A. The correlations between the stretching force
and severity of ADD, the stretching force
and severity of cartilage changes, and the severity of ADD and cartilage changes were statistically significant (P
< 0.01). The most advanced ADD and severest condylar changes were induced in group C. Condylar remodeling and scleroses were found in micro-computed tomography scans.
The rabbit model for ADD has been successfully established in this study, which is feasible and minimally invasive. The stretching force
of at least 1 N could induce the disc displaced successfully. Larger stretching force
would induce severer ADD and condylar degenerative changes.