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Cephalometric Outcomes of Orthognathic Surgery in Hemifacial Microsomia

Fattah, Adel Y. PhD, FRCS(Plast)*; Caro, Camila DDS; Khechoyan, David Y. MD*; Tompson, Bryan DDS, DOrth; Forrest, Christopher R. MD, MSc*; Phillips, John H. MD, FRCSC*

The Journal of Craniofacial Surgery: September 2014 - Volume 25 - Issue 5 - p 1734–1739
doi: 10.1097/SCS.0000435808.91512.58
Original Articles

Hemifacial microsomia is a hypoplastic disorder of the first and second branchial arches that significantly impacts on the development of the jaws, leading to malocclusion and facial asymmetry. There is little in the literature regarding the application of orthodontic/orthognathic approaches to the correction of these deformities and the stability of the surgical results. To address this, a retrospective chart review of 10 patients with complete orthodontic records and greater than 1 year of follow-up was performed. Posteroanterior cephalograms were assessed by modified Grummons analysis to determine mandibular offset (deviation of the chin point from the skeletal midline) and occlusal cant. These measurements were performed at 3 time points (T1: preoperative, T2: immediate postoperative, T3: follow-up) to elucidate the surgical movement (T2–T1), the postoperative relapse (T3–T2), and the net gain movement (T3–T1). Maxillary movements were quantified, and the occlusal cant was expressed as a ratio between vertical heights of the maxilla at the first molar on each side. One sample t test demonstrated statistically significant surgical movement and net gain. Relapse was statistically insignificant. Repeated-measures analysis of variance demonstrated similar results for chin point position relative to the putative midline. Our results suggest that a combined orthodontic/orthognathic approach at skeletal maturity delivers improved occlusal outcomes in the long term as assessed by chin point deviation and occlusal cant, but secondary surgery rates are higher than those for orthognathic surgery in other patient groups. We advocate limiting surgery to skeletal maturity whenever possible to achieve stable long-term results while limiting morbidity and number of procedures.

From the *The Centre for Craniofacial Care and Research, Division of Plastic Surgery, and †Division of Orthodontics, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Received January 20, 2013.

Accepted for publication August 12, 2013.

Address correspondence and reprint requests to Adel Y. Fattah, PhD, FRCS(Plast), The Centre for Craniofacial Care and Research, Division of Plastic Surgery, Hospital for Sick Children, 555 University Avenue, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5G 1X8; E-mail:

The authors report no conflicts of interest.

© 2014 by Mutaz B. Habal, MD.