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Presurgical Motivations, Self-Esteem, and Oral Health of Orthognathic Surgery Patients

Yu, Dedong PhD, DDS*; Wang, Fang PhD†‡; Wang, Xudong MD, DDS*; Fang, Bing MD, DDS§; Shen, Steve Guofang MD, DDS*

Journal of Craniofacial Surgery: May 2013 - Volume 24 - Issue 3 - p 743–747
doi: 10.1097/SCS.0b013e318285d5a4
Original Articles

Purpose The aim of this study was to evaluate motivations, self-esteem, and oral health for undergoing orthognathic patients by gender in China before orthognathic surgery.

Patients and Methods Using a prospective and control study design, 429 subjects in China were collected from December 2010 to May 2011. The patient group consisted of 210 consecutive healthy patients, and 219 young individuals comprised the control group. All the subjects filled out a questionnaire and were assessed by Self-esteem Scale and Oral Health Impact Profile validated for Chinese patients before surgery. To measure the discrepancy, the Student t test was computed. P <0.05 was considered significant.

Results In China, major motivations for orthognathic surgery are to improve facial appearance (83.33%), occlusion (50%), and self-confidence (48.1%). Females expect to improve facial appearance (83.87%), self-confidence (43.55%), and occlusion (41.94%). Males are for the improvement of facial appearance (82.56%), occlusion (63.95%), and self-confidence (54.65%). Self-esteem in the patient group is obviously lower (P < 0.01). There is a significant difference of self-esteem in female groups (P < 0.01), but none in male groups. Statistically significant differences were observed on oral health between both sexes.

Conclusions (1) Special attention should be paid on patients’ ethnic, economic, cultural, and social aspects. In Chinese orthognathic patients, improving facial appearance is the primary motivation. Self-confidence has been more frequently mentioned, while headache far less than other countries. (2) Female patients have less self-esteem than females in the control group. (3) Patients’ oral health are worse than those in the control group.

From the *Department of Oral & Cranio-maxillofacial Science, Ninth People’s Hospital, College of Stomatology, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Stomatology, Shanghai; †Department of Psychology, East China Normal University, Shanghai; ‡School of Public Health, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai; and §Center of Cranio-facial Orthodontics, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Ninth People’s Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Stomatology, Shanghai, China.

Received August 22, 2012.

Accepted for publication December 9, 2012.

Address correspondence and reprint requests to Steve Guofang Shen, MD, DDS, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Science, Ninth People’s Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, School of Medicine, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Stomatology, No. 639 Zhizaoju Road, Shanghai 200011, China; E-mail:

This study was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Project Number 81101131), Research Fund of Science and Technology Commission of Shanghai Municipality (Project Number 10JC1408700), and the Key Project of Combined Medicine and Engineering Science (Project Number YG2012ZD07).

The authors report no conflicts of interest.

© 2013Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins