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Management of Maxillofacial Injuries in Iraq

Kummoona, Raja FDSRCS, FICD

doi: 10.1097/SCS.0b013e31822e5e7d
Original Articles

These clinical studies reflect the experience of the author in managing 673 patients treated during the last 8 years. All patients were treated in the Maxillofacial Unit, Surgical Specialties Hospital, Medical City, Baghdad, and in the author's private clinic. Included patients were 530 males and 143 females; patients' age ranged between 1 year and 75 years (mean, 38 y). Distribution of injuries was as follows: fracture of the mandible, 287 (42.64%); middle third injuries, 39 (5.79%); orbital injuries, 236 (35.07%; including 12 cases with cranioorbital injuries); injuries in children, 27 (4.0%); fracture of the zygoma, 52 (7.73%); and fracture of the nose, 40 (5.94%).

Maxillofacial injuries in this study were classified as follows: (1) craniomaxillofacial with head injuries and cerebrospinal fluid leak; (2) fracture of the middle third including Le Fort I, II, and III and midline split in the face; (3) fracture of the mandible as an isolated injury or as part of a facial skeleton injury; and (4) isolated complex injuries of the zygoma, the orbital skeleton, and the nasoethmoidal region.

The technique used for treating middle third injuries was external fixation either by halo frame (with vertical rods and cheek wires) or by box frame (using 4 external pins connected by rods) or internal fixation by suspending the middle third with internal wires (0.5 mm stainless steel) from the zygomatic process of the frontal bone beneath the zygomatic arch down the lower arch bar. Fractures of the mandible were treated by gunning splint with intermaxillary fixation (IMF) or with open reduction and fixation by stainless steel wire with IMF or by IMF screw or by an arch bar and IMF. Other fractures such as fracture of the orbit were treated by bone graft, sialastic, or lyophilized dura with open reduction. Fractures of the zygoma were treated by open reduction and fixation with stainless steel wire and bone graft or by reduction without fixation. Fractures of the nose were treated by reduction with straightening of the septum with a splint (lead splint or polythene) or by external splint with plaster of Paris. With the techniques used, results from managing these cases were satisfactory.

From the Medical City, Bab Al-Moa dam, Baghdad, Iraq.

Received February 18, 2011.

Accepted for publication July 13, 2011.

Address correspondence and reprint requests to Raja Kummoona, FDSRCS, FICD, Medical City, Bab Al-Moa dam, PO Box 5116, Baghdad, Iraq; E-mail:;

The author reports no conflicts of interest.

© 2011 Mutaz B. Habal, MD