The purpose of this study was to evaluate the natural history of zygomatic fractures in 469 cases over 14 years. The medical records of patients seeking treatment for zygomatic fractures were reviewed. The zygomatic fractures were classified as monopod, dipod, or tripod fractures for most patients. The monopod fractures included (1) zygomaticofrontal, (2) zygomaticomaxillary, and (3) zygomatic arch fractures. The dipod fractures were subclassified into 3 types according to combination of the previously mentioned 3 sites, which were 1 and 2, 1 and 3, and 2 and 3. Tripod fracture included all 1, 2, and 3. Among 469 cases of zygomatic fractures, tripod fractures (n = 238, 50.7%), zygomaticomaxillary fracture (n = 121, 25.8%), and isolated fracture of the zygomatic arch (n = 98 20.9%) formed most of the cases (n = 457, 97.4%). About one-half cases were tripod fractures (n = 238, 50.7%), and another half cases were monopod fractures (n = 220, 46.9%). Only 11 cases (2.4%) were dipod fractures. Most of the monopod fractures were zygomaticomaxillary (n = 121, 25.8%) and zygomatic arch fractures (n = 98, 20.9%). Among the dipod fractures, no cases of zygomaticofrontal and zygomatic arch fractures were reported. An open reduction was performed in 73.8% (346 cases), closed reduction in 24.5% (115 cases), and conservative treatment in only 1.7%. In tripod fracture (n = 238), an open reduction and internal fixation was performed for most of the cases (n = 225, 94.5%), and closed reduction was performed in only 11 cases (4.6%). In monopod zygomaticomaxillary fracture (n = 121), internal fixation was performed for most of the cases (n = 108, 89.3%), and closed reduction was performed in only 9 cases (7.7%). However, in monopod fracture of the zygomatic arch (n = 98), most of the cases (n = 95, 96.9%) were treated with closed reduction; open reduction was performed in only 1 case (1.0%). At zygomaticofrontal area (n = 241), internal fixation was performed in most of the cases (n = 198, 82.2%). At the infraorbital rim (n = 364), internal fixation was carried out in most cases (n = 257, 70.6%). At the zygomaticomaxillary buttress (n = 279), internal fixation was performed in about one third of the cases (n = 91, 32.6%). At the zygomatic arch (n = 339), only 1 case (0.3%) was fixed internally. The postoperative complication rate occurred in 88 cases (19.1%) among 461 cases operated. The most common complication was hypesthesia (50 cases, 56.8%), followed by diplopia (15 cases, 17.0%), limitation of mouth opening or closure (11 cases, 12.5%), infection (6.8%), and hematoma (4.5%). Most patients with hypesthesia improved at 2 months. About 90% of the patients with diplopia improved within 2 months. Limitation of mouth opening was improved immediately after operation in most of the cases.
Our findings demonstrate significant differences in the demographics and clinical presentation that will enable a more accurate diagnosis and prediction of concomitant injuries and sequelae.
From the Department of Plastic Surgery, and Center for Advanced Medical Education by BK21 Project, Inha University College of Medicine, Incheon, Korea.
Received October 8, 2010.
Accepted for publication January 29, 2011.
Address correspondence and reprint requests to Dr. Kun Hwang, Department of Plastic Surgery, and Center for Advanced Medical Education by BK21 Project, Inha University College of Medicine, 7-206 Sinheung-dong, Jung-gu, Incheon 400-711. Korea; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
This work was supported by National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF-2011-0006553).
The authors report no conflicts of interest.